Science of Chocolate

ISBN-10: 0854049703

ISBN-13: 9780854049707

Edition: 2nd 2008 (Revised)

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Description: The second edition of this international best seller has been fully revised and updated describing the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The reader will discover how confectionery is made and how basic science plays a vital role. There is discussion of the monitoring and controlling of the production process, and the importance of the packaging. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students, are included to demonstrate the physical, chemical or mathematical principles involved. This book is ideal for those studying food sciences, working in the confectionery industry or just with a general interest in chocolate!

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Book details

List price: $468.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, The
Publication date: 2/14/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 240
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

BSc (Durham) D.Phil (York) in physics. 8 years research into asbestosis, followed by over 27 years working in the chocolate industry, with Rowntree then Nestl�. Chairman of Solingen Confectionery School, Chocolate Technology Conference Committee (Germany). Now retired from Nestl�, and currently a director of Sporomex, an encapsulation research company.

The History of Chocolate
Chocolate as a Drink
Eating Chocolate
Chocolate Crumb
White Chocolate
Chocolate Marketing in the UK
Chocolate is Good for You
References
Chocolate Ingredients
Cocoa Beans
Cocoa Trees
Commercial Cocoa-Producing Countries
Cocoa Pods
Fermentation
Fermentation Procedure
Microbial and Chemical Changes
Drying
Storage and Transport
Sugar and Sugar Substitutes
Sugar and its Production
Crystalline and Amorphous Sugar
Lactose
Glucose and Fructose
Sugar Alcohols
Polydextrose
Milk and Other Dairy Components
Milk Fat
Milk Proteins
Milk Powders
Whey and Lactose Powders
Chocolate Crumb
References
Additional Reading
Cocoa Bean Processing
Bean Cleaning
Roasting and Winnowing
The Problem of Bean Size Variation
Winnowing
Bean Roasting
Nib and Liquor Roasting
Roasters
Chemical Changes during Roasting
Maillard Reaction
Grinding Cocoa Nib
Cocoa Mills
Impact Mills
Disc Mills
Ball Mills
Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Powder Production
Alkalising (Dutching)
Cocoa Butter
Cocoa Powder
References
Liquid Chocolate Making
Chocolate Milling
Separate Ingredient Grinding Mills
Combined Milling
Chocolate Conching
Chemical Changes
Physical Changes
Viscosity Reduction
Conching Machines
The Long Conche
Rotary Conches
Continuous Low Volume Machines
The Three Stages of Conching
References
Controlling the Flow Properties of Liquid Chocolate
Viscosity
Particle Size
Particle Size Distribution Data
Effect of Particle Size on Viscosity
Effect of Fat Additions on Viscosity
Moisture and Chocolate Flow
Emulsifiers and Chocolate Viscosity
Lecithin
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate
Other Emulsifiers
Degree of Mixing
References
Crystallising the Fat in Chocolate
Structure of Cocoa Butter
Different Crystalline Forms
Pre-Crystallisation or Tempering
Mixing Different Fats (Fat Eutectics)
Chocolate Fat Bloom
Some Types of Non-Cocoa Vegetable Fat
Cocoa Butter Equivalents
Enzyme Interesterification
Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacers
Non-Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacers
Low Calorie Fats
References
Manufacturing Chocolate Products
Tempering
Liquid Chocolate Storage
Tempering Machines
Hand Tempering
Temper Measurement
Moulding
Solid Tablets
Chocolate Shells
Enrobers
Maintaining Tempered Chocolate
Solidifying the Chocolate
Coolers
Panning
Chocolate Coating
Sugar Panning
References
Analytical Techniques
Particle Size Measurement
Moisture Determination
Fat Content Measurement
Viscosity Determination
Simple Factory Techniques
The Standard Method
Flavour
Texture Monitoring
Crystallisation Amount and Type
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
References
Different Chocolate Products
Special Recipes
Ice-cream coatings
Shape-Retaining Chocolate
Modifying the Fat Phase
Transparent Coatings
Water
Building a Framework of Solid Particles
Air Bubbles in Chocolate
Factors Affecting Bubble Size
Water Evaporation Bubbles
Cream Eggs and Other Filled Chocolate Shapes
Multiple Chocolates and Centres
Legislation, Shelf Life and Packaging
Legislation
Shelf Life
Packaging
Foil and Paper Wrap
Flow Wrap
Biopolymers
Robotic Packing
References
Nutrition and Health
Nutrition
Fats
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Obesity
Tooth Decay
Anti-Caries Factor in Cocoa
Tooth-Friendly Milk Proteins
Oxalic Acid
Oral Clearance
Other Alleged Negative Reactions
Migraine and Headaches
Acne
Allergies
Positive Health Effects
Psychoactive Compounds
References
Experiments with Chocolate and Chocolate Products
Amorphous and Crystalline Sugar
Particle Separation
Fat Migration
Cocoa Butter Separation
Chocolate Viscosity
Particle Size of Chocolate
Effect of Lecithin
Changing the Continuous Phase
Chocolate Temper
Hardness Measurement
Chocolate Composition and Product Weight Control
Distributions and Probabilities
Chromatography of Colours
Effectiveness of Different Packaging Materials
Viscosity and Flavour
Heat-Resistance Testing
Coefficient of Expansion
The Maillard Reaction
Glossary
Subject Index
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