Extra-Ordinary Ergonomics How to Accommodate Small and Big Persons, the Disabled and Elderly, Expectant Mothers, and Children

ISBN-10: 0849336686

ISBN-13: 9780849336683

Edition: 2005

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Description: Written by an expert in human factors and ergonomics, this book explores designing for population groups that do not meet the customary standards in age, size, and abilities. The book illustrates various approaches to measuring the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of those who differ from the norm. It provides the how-tos of designing for people who are smaller, weaker, or bigger, discusses specifically the design for persons with disabilities and the aging population, and covers human factors engineering for expectant mothers and ergonomics for children and teenagers. The author demonstrates how to design tools, homes, and environments to make working space safe and living space easy.

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Book details

List price: $99.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 8/12/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 254
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Preface
Author
Foreword
"Extra-Ordinary" Individuals and Groups of People
Introduction
Overview
Defining Ergonomics
Task Demands on the Person
Human Capabilities and Limitations
Defining "Extra-Ordinary" Individuals and Population Groups
A Day in the Life of My Mother
Differing From the Norm
Anthropometry
Anthropometry of the U.S. Population
Physical Capabilities
Ability To Do Strenuous Work
Muscle Strength
Thermoregulation of the Body
Capabilities of the Mind
The Nervous System
Sensors
Workload and Stress
Sensing the Environment
The Vision Sense
Mobility of the Eyes
Line of Sight
Size of the Visual Target
Visual Acuity
Accommodation
Visual Problems
The Hearing Sense
Hearing in Noise
The Senses of Smell and Taste
Smell
Taste
The Cutaneous Senses
Sensing Touch
Sensing Warmth and Coldness
Sensing Pain
Research Needs
Responding to Stimuli
Reaction Time
Motion Time
Response Time
Summary
Assessment Methods and Techniques
Overview
Measurement Teams
Anthropometric Techniques
Assessing Energetic Capabilities
Assessing Muscle Strength
Assessing Mental Workload
Assessing Vision Capabilities
Assessing Auditory Capabilities
Assessing Smelling and Tasting Capabilities
Odorants and Odors
Gustation
Assessing Taction Senses
Assessing Response Times
Reaction Time
Motion Time
Response Time
Assessing Complex Capabilities
Activities of Daily Living
Systematic Gathering of Information
Intrinsic Performance Elements
The "Allied IPE" Model
Review of Existing Assessments
Gerontology
Medicine
Physiology
Psychology
Biomechanics
Sports Sciences
Anthropometry
Rehabilitation Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Conclusions Drawn From the Review of Existing Tests
Possible Solutions
Summary
Principles of Human Factors Engineering
Overview
Striving for Better Designs
Designing for Safety
Designing for Ease of Use
Designing for Variability
Using Statistics
Phantoms, Ghosts, and the "Average Person" Manikin
Proper Design Procedures
Single Cutoff
"Max or Min" Design
Dual Cutoff
"Min and Max" Design
Use of Average Values
How to Determine Critical Design Values
Statistical Procedures
Determining a Single Percentile as Cutoff Point ("Max or Min")
Determining the Upper and Lower Limits of a Range ("Min" and "Max")
Combining Anthropometric Data Sets
How to Get Missing Data
Designing for Body Strength
Designing the "Signal Loop"
Designing for Groups of People and for Individuals
Summary
Design for Movement: With Special Solutions for the Very Small and Big, for Those With Lower Back Problems, and for Bedridden Persons
Overview
Design for Motion Instead of Posture
Design to Fit Body Dimensions
Design for Very Small and Very Big People
What Data to Use?
Calculating Data
Measuring Data
Design to Avoid Harm and Injury
Medical Errors
Repetition-Caused Injuries
Low Back Problems
Beds and Chairs
Lift Belts
Nurses and Their Patients
Summary
Design for Persons with Disabilities
Overview
Defining and Measuring Disabilities
Performance Impairments and Disabilities
Problem Identification Matrix
"Ergonomics for One"
Locomotion Aids
Wheelchairs
Automobiles
Use of Computers
Ergonomic Design of Telesupport Systems
Consumer Products
Selection of Assistive Technology
Sources of Information and Advice
Summary
Design for Aging
Overview
What to Expect as One Ages
Demographics
Terminology
Life Expectancy
How We Age
"Successful Aging"
Aging-Related Changes and Their Ergonomic Counteractions
Changes in Anthropometry
Changes in Musculoskeletal Attributes
Changes in Respiration and Circulation
Changes in Nervous Functions
Changes in the Brain
Changes in the Capacity for Physical Work
Changes in Visual Functions
Eye Movements
Accommodation Problems
Less Light Passing Through the Pupil
Cataracts
Yellowing of Lens and Humor
Floaters, Veil, and Glare
Loss of Cones, Rods, or Retinal Pigment
Self-Reported Vision Problems
Recommended Checkups
Changes in Hearing
Changes in Taste and Smell
Changes in Somesthetic Sensitivity
Changes in Sensory and Psychomotor Performance
Designing for the Older Person
Designing for the Aging Eye
Designing for the Aging Driver and Passenger
Designing Computer Systems for the Aging
Designing Internet Health Information
Designing Living Quarters for the Aging
A Home Suitable for Older Persons
Kitchen
Bathroom
Bedroom
Designing Nursing Homes
Remodeling an Existing Habitat
Sources of Information and Advice
Summary
Design for Expectant Mothers
Overview
Special Designs for Women?
Changes in Body Dimensions of Expectant Mothers
Using Seat Belts
Changes in Work Capacity During Pregnancy
Ergonomic Design Recommendations
Summary
Design for Children and Adolescents
Overview
Children Grow Into Adolescents
Anthropometry of Children and Adolescents
Overweight and Obesity
Growing Bodies
Growth Charts
Body Mass of Children and Adolescents
Body Strength of Children and Adolescents
Designing for Children and Adolescents
Designing Safe Openings
Designing Furniture for Play and Work
School Furniture
Computer Play Stations and Workplaces
Summary
References
Appendix
Index
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