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Principles of Ecotoxicology

ISBN-10: 084933635X
ISBN-13: 9780849336355
Edition: 3rd 2005 (Revised)
List price: $89.95
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Description: Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 12/22/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 344
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their environmental fate. The first edition was originally created to fill the need for a textbook that covered the basic principles of a developing and wide-ranging field and the second edition expanded on that theme. Keeping the focus on principles over practice that has made each incarnation of this textbook so popular, the third edition brings the text up to date and strengthens coverage in areas that have come to the forefront of the field.The third edition features new material on pollutants that are receiving closer scrutiny, naturally occurring poisons, the history of chemical warfare, population risk assessment, community structure, neonicotinoids, endocrine disruption, and neurotoxicity. A new section on extrapolating from molecular interaction to the consequent population changes highlights the molecules to ecosystem approach and provides the groundwork for discussions on the employment of biomarker strategies in field studies. A major theme of the new material is how the concepts discussed can contribute to improved methods of environmental risk assessment. With updates to every chapter, this text provides essential information for students in easy to use and understandable format.

Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Pollutants and Their Fate in Ecosystems
Major Classes of Pollutants
Inorganic Ions
Metals
Anions
Organic Pollutants
Hydrocarbons
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Polychlorinated Benzodioxins (PCDDs)
Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs)
Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)
Organochlorine Insecticides
Organophosphorous Insecticides (OPs)
Carbamate Insecticides
Pyrethroid Insecticides
Neonicotinoids
Phenoxy Herbicides (Plant-Growth-Regulator Herbicides)
Anticoagulant Rodenticides
Detergents
Chlorophenols
Ethinylestradiol (EE2)
Pharmaceuticals
Organometallic Compounds
Radioactive Isotopes
Introduction
The Nature and Intensity of the Radioactive Decay Products
Half-Lives
Biochemistry
Gaseous Pollutants
Summary
Further Reading
Routes by Which Pollutants Enter Ecosystems
Entry Into Surface Waters
Contamination of Land
Discharge Into the Atmosphere
Quantification of Release of Pollutants
Summary
Further Reading
Long-Range Movements and Global Transport of Pollutants
Factors Determining Movement and Distribution of Pollutants
Polarity and Water Solubility
Partition Coefficients
Vapor Pressure
Partition Between Different Compartments of the Environment
Molecular Stability and Recalcitrant Molecules
Transport in Water
Transport in Air
Models for Environmental Distribution of Chemicals
Summary
Further Reading
The Fate of Metals and Radioactive Isotopes in Contaminated Ecosystems
Introduction
Localization
Persistence
Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation Factors
Bioavailability
Cocktails of Inorganic Pollutants
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Introduction
Metals
Radioactivity
Aquatic Systems
Summary
Further Reading
The Fate of Organic Pollutants in Individuals and in Ecosystems
Fate Within Individual Organisms
General Model
Processes of Uptake
Processes of Distribution
Storage
Metabolism
Sites of Excretion
Toxicokinetic Models
Toxicokinetic Models for Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation
Organic Pollutants in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Fate in Soils
Transfer Along Terrestrial Food Chains
Organic Pollutants in Aquatic Ecosystems
Pollutants in Sediments
Transfer Along Aquatic Food Chains
Summary
Further Reading
Effects of Pollutants on Individual Organisms
Toxicity Testing
General Principles
Determination of the Toxicity of Mixtures
Toxicity Testing with Terrestrial Organisms
Introduction
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Plants
Toxicity Testing with Aquatic Organisms
Tests Concerned with Direct Absorption from Water
Sediment Toxicity Tests
Risk Assessment
Toxicity Testing in the Field
Alternative Methods in Ecotoxicity Testing
Alternative Methods for Estimating Toxicity to Vertebrates
Alternative Methods and Strategies That Work to More Ecological End Points
Summary
Further Reading
Biochemical Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Protective Biochemical Responses
Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity
Examples of Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity
Genotoxic Compounds
Neurotoxic Compounds
Mitochondrial Poisons
Vitamin K Antagonists
Thyroxine Antagonists
Inhibition of ATPases
Environmental Estrogens and Androgens
Reactions with Protein Sulfhydryl (SH) Groups
Photosystems of Plants
Plant-Growth-Regulator Herbicides
Summary
Further Reading
Physiological Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Effects of Pollutants at the Cellular Level in Animals
Effects at the Organ Level in Animals
Effects at the Whole Organism Level in Animals
Neurophysiological Effects
Effects on Behavior
Reproductive Effects
Effects on Plants
Energy Costs of Physiological Change
Summary
Further Reading
Interactive Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Additive Effects
Potentiation of Toxicity
Potentiation Due to Inhibition of Detoxication
Potentiation Due to Increased Activation
The Detection of Potentiation in the Field
Summary
Further Reading
Biomarkers
Classification of Biomarkers
Specificity of Biomarkers
Relationship of Biomarkers to Adverse Effects
Discussion of Specific Biomarkers
Inhibition of Esterases
The Monooxygenases
Studies on Genetic Material
Porphyrins and Heme Synthesis
Induction of Vitellogenin
Behavioral Biomarkers
Biomarkers in Plants
Role of Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessment
Summary
Further Reading
In situ Biological Monitoring
Introduction
Community Effects (Type 1 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Bioconcentration of Pollutants (Type 2 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Effects of Pollutants (Type 3 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Genetically Based Resistance to Pollution (Type 4 Biomonitoring)
Conclusions
Summary
Further Reading
Effects of Pollutants on Populations and Communities
Changes in Numbers: Population Dynamics
Population Abundance
Population Growth Rate
Population Growth Rate Depends on the Properties of Individual Organisms
The Life History and Population Growth Rate of the Coastal Copepod Eurytemora affinis
Density Dependence
Identifying Which Factors Are Density Dependent: k-Value Analysis
Interactions Between Species
Field Studies: Three Case Studies
The Decline of the Partridge
Population Studies of Pesticides and Birds of Prey in the UK
The Boxworth Project (An Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Pesticides on Farmland)
Modeling the Effects of Insecticides on Skylarks for Risk Assessment Purposes
Summary
Further Reading
Evolution of Resistance to Pollution
Chronic Pollution Is Environmental Change
The Evolutionary Process in a Constant Environment
The Evolution of Resistance When There Is a Mortality-Production Trade-Off
Evolutionary Responses to Environmental Change
Resistance Is Often Monogenic
Case Studies
Evolution of Pesticide Resistance
Evolution of Metal Tolerance in Plants
Evolution of Industrial Melanism
Evolutionary Response of Dog Whelks, Nucella lapillus, to TBT Contamination
Evolution of Resistance to Pollution in Estuaries
Summary
Further Reading
Changes in Communities and Ecosystems
Introduction
Changes in Soil Processes: The Functional Approach
Changes in Composition of Communities: The Structural Approach
Changes in Soil Ecosystems
Acidification of Lakes and Rivers
Mesocosms
Global Processes
Summary
Further Reading
Extrapolating from Molecular Interactions to Consequent Effects at the Population Level
Introduction
The Translation of Toxic Effects Across Organizational Boundaries
From Effects at the Site of Action to Localized Cellular Disturbances
From Cellular Disturbances to Effects at the Level of the Whole Organism
From Effects Upon the Whole Organism to Population Effects
The Complete Causal Chain
Biomarker Strategies
Establishing Causality Where Pollution Already Exists
Biomarker Strategies in the Field
The Problem of Controls
Selection of Biomarkers for Field Studies
Biomarkers and Environmental Risk Assessment
Summary
Further Reading
Biomarkers in Population Studies
DDE-Induced Eggshell Thinning in Raptorial and Fish-Eating Birds
Reproductive Failure of Fish-Eating Birds on the Great Lakes of North America
Reproductive Failure of Molluscs Caused by Tributyl Tin
Forest Spraying in Eastern Canada to Control Spruce Budworm
Summary
Further Reading
Introduction to Population Projection Matrices
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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