Vehicular Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

ISBN-10: 0849320208
ISBN-13: 9780849320200
Edition: 2001
List price: $172.95
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Description: Accident investigation/reconstruction is more than just a job or even a profession; it is more art than science and requires a dedication greater than a commitment of time. It takes constant reading, study, and analysis of accident information and  More...

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Book details

List price: $172.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 9/19/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 512
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Accident investigation/reconstruction is more than just a job or even a profession; it is more art than science and requires a dedication greater than a commitment of time. It takes constant reading, study, and analysis of accident information and case reconstructions to keep improving your performance, both in the field and in the courtroom. Vehicular Accident Investigation and Reconstruction concentrates on the development of the skills, education, and information needed for an accident investigation and reconstruction, including the necessary tools, some of the pitfalls facing the investigator/reconstructionist and the latest advances and techniques in the field.The book is divided into four sections:Section 1 -- Describes the need for proper accident investigation, the specialized tools, education, and the necessary mindsetSection 2 -- Deals with reconstruction, which requires deductive reasoning, logic, physics, engineering, and a general knowledge of the accident subjectSection 3 -- Discusses occupant kinematics or body movement and reaction to external forces, including human anatomy, physiology, human tolerance to impact, and occupant reactions to various types of impactsSection 4 -- Discusses latest techniques for investigation and reconstruction, citing examples such as electronic scene mapping, computer animation, computer accident simulation, and the use of the computer in the courtroom.

Why Investigate Accidents?
Economic Costs
Human Costs
Causes of Accidents
Methods Used to Estimate Costs
Economic
Comprehensive
How to Reduce Vehicular Injuries
Reasons for Investigating Vehicular Accidents
Investigative Organizations
Databases for Road Conditions and Use of Restraint Systems
Prevention and Elimination of On-the-Job Injuries
Criminal and Civil Litigation
References
Where Do I Start?
Requirements for Accident Investigators/Reconstructionists
Sources of Additional Training
Basic Knowledge for the Investigator
Fresh Scenes
Stale or Aged Scenes
References
Tools and Special Equipment for the Investigator
Preparation
Basic Tool Kit
Special Equipment
Photographic Equipment
Video Equipment
Special Safety Equipment or Gear
Office Equipment
Computer Needs
Printer Needs
Computer Programs
Ownership of Documentation
Ownership of Evidence
Technical Library
Internet
Scene Investigation
Collisions--Vehicular
Accident Scene
Urban Setting
Rural Setting
On-Scene Sketches
Methods for Plotting a Curve
Visualization
Traffic Light Timing
Tire Marks
Real-World Scene Photographs
Water on or over the Roadway
The Vehicle Exterior
Memorializing Accident Vehicles
Videotaping at Accident Scene
Using Still or 35-mm Camera at Accident Scene
Exterior Details to Be Noted and Recorded
Metal Folds
Paint Transfers
Weld or Base Metal Separation and Rust
Scrapes, Gouges, and Scratches
Aluminum vs. Steel Wheels
Tires
Missing or Misplaced Components
Underside of Vehicle and Use of Tow Trucks
Fluid Leaks
Headlights, Taillights, and Side Marker Lights
Unexplained Damage
Vehicle Deterioration and Rusting
Vehicle Interiors
Collisions--Occupant
Obvious Interior Deformation
Windshields
Rear Windows
Instrument Panels
Steering Columns
Steering Wheel Rims
Sun Visors
T-Tops, Moon Roofs, and Sunroofs
Rearview Mirrors
Seat Cushions and Seatbacks
Headrests
Less Obvious Interior Deformation
Moldings
Checklists
Types of Impacts as Related to Interior Deformation
Side Impacts
Rear Impacts
Rollovers
Smears and Blood Pooling
Comment on Restraint Systems
References
Restraining Systems
Standard Restraint Devices
Shoulder/Lap Belts
Air Bags or Supplemental Systems
New Developments
Restraint Devices for Special Occupants
Pregnant Women
Children
Converted Vehicles for the Handicapped
Vehicle and Occupant Accident Investigation Forms
Vehicle Data
Tire Data
Exterior Damage Sketches
Damage Measurements
Occupant Area Intrusions
Internal Damage Sketches
Internal Contacts
Interior Seats, Headrests, and Steering Wheel and Column
Seat Belts and Air Bags
Occupant Information and Injury Data
Soft Tissue Injuries
Internal Injuries
Skeletal Injuries
Injury Mechanisms
Notes and Injury Countermeasures
Occupant Kinematics
Terminology Definitions
Basic Systems of the Human Body
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Cardiovascular System
Visceral System
Anthropomorphic Dummies
Impact Acceleration
Linear Acceleration
Positive Direction Coordinates
Rotational Directional Coordinates
Caudocephalad Acceleration (+G[subscript x])
Actual Incidences of Vertebral Injury
Experimental Studies
Impact Acceleration to the Lower Limbs
Impact Acceleration to the Head and Face
Facial Impact Acceleration
Impact Acceleration to the Neck
Impact Acceleration to the Chest
Longitudinal Acceleration (+g[subscript x] and -g[subscript x])
Forward Acceleration (+g[subscript x])
Backward Acceleration (-g[subscript x])
General Physiological Effects
Lap Belt Injuries in Aircraft and Automotive Accidents
Occupant Injuries
Cadaver Experiments
Anthropomorphic Dummies
Large Animal Experiments
Actual Injury Reports
Lateral Acceleration (+g[subscript y] and -g[subscript y])
Lateral Impacts--Animal Experiments, Lap Belt Only
Anthropomorphic Dummy Experiments
Volunteer Experiments--Full Restraint
Combination Lap and Shoulder Belt
Summary
Accident Reconstruction
How to Become an Accident Reconstructionist
How is a Reconstructionist Defined?
How to go about Starting the Reconstruction
Sample Case
What Was Learned?
What Was Required to Solve the Case?
What Happens When Details are Insufficient to Prove the Hypothesis?
Severity Indices
Traffic Accident Data Index
Scale Validation
Vehicle Deformation Index
Requirements for a Deformation Index
Description of the Vehicle Deformation Index
Conclusion
Development of a Medically Acceptable Injury Scale
A Review of the Present Scales
American Medical Association Abbreviated Injury Scale
Injury Scale Uses
A Detailed Injury Scale for Accident Investigation
Definition of Detailed Injury Criteria
Accident Data
Conclusions
Discussion
References
Motorcycle Accidents
Factors Involved
Size of Vehicles
Headlights and Taillights
Details to Be Investigated
Braking System of Motorcycle
Witness Marks on Accident Site
Witness Marks on Motorcycle
Measurement of Angle of Impact
Oil Trail
Determination of the Motorcyclist's Point of Impact
Motorcyclist's Helmet
Inspection of Inoperative or Deformed Motorcycle Components
Determination of Velocity of Motorcycle at Impact by Alternative Method
References
Pedestrian Accidents
Details to be Determined
Direct Impacts from Front of Vehicle
Pattern of Injury to Pedestrian
Determining Pedestrian Rotation
Impacts to Vehicle Windshield
Dents in Vehicle Exterior
Sideswipe Type of Impact
Comparison of Vehicle Exterior Surfaces
Rearview Mirrors
Determination of Pedestrian's Walking or Running Speed
Determination of Distance Pedestrian Is Thrown
Determination of Impact Velocity
Witness Statements
Scale Drawings, Surrogates, Animations, and Computer Simulations in Preparing Exhibits
Developing Exhibits
Photographs
Scale Drawings
Measurements
Surrogates
Animations
Computer Simulations
Conclusions
Mathematical Analysis
Linear Motion with Constant Acceleration
Definition of Terms
Perception and Reaction Time
Coefficient of Friction
Drag Factor
A Detailed Description of Figure 15.1
Problem One
A Detailed Description of Figure 15.2
Problem Two
Appendix 15.1 Equation Workbook
A Detailed Look at Appendix 15.1
Distance Equations
Velocity Equations
Momentum Equations
Sources of Information
Weather Sources
Meteorology Experts
Vision and Lighting Experts
Vehicle Statistics
Accident Intersection Data
State Highway Department Photographs
Construction Zone
Power and Telephone Poles
State Maintenance Records, Roads, and Trucks
Aerial Photographs
Vehicle Information
Full Size Body in White Drawings
Preproduction Defect Reports
Warranty Reports
Customer Service Bulletins
Recall Campaigns
Endurance Testing
Laboratory Testing
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Test Results
Barrier Crash Tests
Independent Agencies
Database Analysis
Medical and Scientific Journals
Data Research Companies
Human Factor Data
Trade Associations
Professional Associations
Deposition and Courtroom Appearance
Expert Witness and Use of Videotape Recordings
Major Studies
Expert Witness's Use of Videotape
Pros and Cons of Videotape
Nonverbal Communication in Expert Testimony
Pretrial Preparation
Physical Appearance
Establishing Qualifications
How to Describe the Research
Video--Visual Aids
Briefly State Overall Conclusion--Then Explain
Transcending Your Ego
Hypothetical Questions
Cross-Examination
Handling Attack
Summary
Nature of Jury Response to the Expert Witness
Source Credibility
Conclusion
References
Educating the Client
Technology and Basic Language
Terminology
Preparation for Deposition
Mutual Building of Trust and Understanding
Interrogatories
Discovery
Questions about the Scene and Vehicle
Unusual Case Histories
Injury to Cervical Airway
Dragging Death
Suicide by Self-Decapitation
Summary
References
Ethics
Derivations and Definitions
Recommended Text on Ethics
The First Commandment--Your Ear Shall Hear; Your Eyes Shall See
The Second Commandment--Do Not Utter a False Report
The Third Commandment--Do No Unrighteousness in Weights and Measures
The Fourth Commandment--Love Your Neighbor as Yourself
The Fifth Commandment--Do Justly, Love Mercy, and Walk Humbly
The Sixth Commandment--Bring Healing and Cure
The Seventh Commandment--You Shall Surely Tithe
The Eighth Commandment--Remember the Sabbath
The Ninth Commandment--Acquire Wisdom
The Tenth Commandment--Know Before Whom You Stand
Suggested Conduct for Professional Investigators/Reconstructionists
References
Glossary
Index

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