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Fracture Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN-10: 0849316561
ISBN-13: 9780849316562
Edition: 3rd 2005 (Revised)
Authors: T. L. Anderson
List price: $132.95 Buy it from $97.07
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Description: This third edition continues to raise the bar in both scope and coverage. It encompasses theory and applications, linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics, solid mechanics, and materials science with a unified, balanced, and in-depth approach.  More...

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Book details

List price: $132.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 6/24/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 640
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.838
Language: English

This third edition continues to raise the bar in both scope and coverage. It encompasses theory and applications, linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics, solid mechanics, and materials science with a unified, balanced, and in-depth approach. Additions include a new chapter on environmental cracking, expanded coverage of weight functions, new material on toughness test methods, new problems at the end of the book, updated coverage of fracture analysis procedures, and expanded coverage of fatigue crack closure. It also contains detailed mathematical derivations in appendices at the end of applicable chapters and recent developments in laboratory testing, application to structures, and computational methods.

Introduction
History and Overview
Why Structures Fail
Historical Perspective
Early Fracture Research
The Liberty Ships
Post-War Fracture Mechanics Research
Fracture Mechanics from 1960 to 1980
Fracture Mechanics from 1980 to the Present
The Fracture Mechanics Approach to Design
The Energy Criterion
The Stress-Intensity Approach
Time-Dependent Crack Growth and Damage Tolerance
Effect of Material Properties on Fracture
A Brief Review of Dimensional Analysis
The Buckingham II-Theorem
Dimensional Analysis in Fracture Mechanics
References
Fundamental Concepts
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
An Atomic View of Fracture
Stress Concentration Effect of Flaws
The Griffith Energy Balance
Comparison with the Critical Stress Criterion
Modified Griffith Equation
The Energy Release Rate
Instability and the R Curve
Reasons for the R Curve Shape
Load Control vs. Displacement Control
Structures with Finite Compliance
Stress Analysis of Cracks
The Stress Intensity Factor
Relationship between K and Global Behavior
Effect of Finite Size
Principle of Superposition
Weight Functions
Relationship between K and G
Crack-Tip Plasticity
The Irwin Approach
The Strip-Yield Model
Comparison of Plastic Zone Corrections
Plastic Zone Shape
K-Controlled Fracture
Plane Strain Fracture: Fact vs. Fiction
Crack-Tip Triaxiality
Effect of Thickness on Apparent Fracture Toughness
Plastic Zone Effects
Implications for Cracks in Structures
Mixed-Mode Fracture
Propagation of an Angled Crack
Equivalent Mode I Crack
Biaxial Loading
Interaction of Multiple Cracks
Coplanar Cracks
Parallel Cracks
Mathematical Foundations of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Plane Elasticity
Cartesian Coordinates
Polar Coordinates
Crack Growth Instability Analysis
Crack-Tip Stress Analysis
Generalized In-Plane Loading
The Westergaard Stress Function
Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind
References
Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics
Crack-Tip-Opening Displacement
The J Contour Integral
Nonlinear Energy Release Rate
J as a Path-Independent Line Integral
J as a Stress Intensity Parameter
The Large Strain Zone
Laboratory Measurement of J
Relationships Between J and CTOD
Crack-Growth Resistance Curves
Stable and Unstable Crack Growth
Computing J for a Growing Crack
J-Controlled Fracture
Stationary Cracks
J-Controlled Crack Growth
Crack-Tip Constraint Under Large-Scale Yielding
The Elastic T Stress
J-Q Theory
The J-Q Toughness Locus
Effect of Failure Mechanism on the J-Q Locus
Scaling Model for Cleavage Fracture
Failure Criterion
Three-Dimensional Effects
Application of the Model
Limitations of Two-Parameter Fracture Mechanics
Mathematical Foundations of Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics
Determining CTOD from the Strip-Yield Model
The J Contour Integral
J as a Nonlinear Elastic Energy Release Rate
The HRR Singularity
Analysis of Stable Crack Growth in Small-Scale Yielding
The Rice-Drugan-Sham Analysis
Steady State Crack Growth
Notes on the Applicability of Deformation Plasticity to Crack Problems
References
Dynamic and Time-Dependent Fracture
Dynamic Fracture and Crack Arrest
Rapid Loading of a Stationary Crack
Rapid Crack Propagation and Arrest
Crack Speed
Elastodynamic Crack-Tip Parameters
Dynamic Toughness
Crack Arrest
Dynamic Contour Integrals
Creep Crack Growth
The C* Integral
Short-Time vs. Long-Time Behavior
The C[subscript t] Parameter
Primary Creep
Viscoelastic Fracture Mechanics
Linear Viscoelasticity
The Viscoelastic J Integral
Constitutive Equations
Correspondence Principle
Generalized J Integral
Crack Initiation and Growth
Transition from Linear to Nonlinear Behavior
Dynamic Fracture Analysis
Elastodynamic Crack Tip Fields
Derivation of the Generalized Energy Release Rate
References
Material Behavior
Fracture Mechanisms in Metals
Ductile Fracture
Void Nucleation
Void Growth and Coalescence
Ductile Crack Growth
Cleavage
Fractography
Mechanisms of Cleavage Initiation
Mathematical Models of Cleavage Fracture Toughness
The Ductile-Brittle Transition
Intergranular Fracture
Statistical Modeling of Cleavage Fracture
Weakest Link Fracture
Incorporating a Conditional Probability of Propagation
References
Fracture Mechanisms in Nonmetals
Engineering Plastics
Structure and Properties of Polymers
Molecular Weight
Molecular Structure
Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers
Viscoelastic Behavior
Mechanical Analogs
Yielding and Fracture in Polymers
Chain Scission and Disentanglement
Shear Yielding and Crazing
Crack-Tip Behavior
Rubber Toughening
Fatigue
Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
Overview of Failure Mechanisms
Delamination
Compressive Failure
Notch Strength
Fatigue Damage
Ceramics and Ceramic Composites
Microcrack Toughening
Transformation Toughening
Ductile Phase Toughening
Fiber and Whisker Toughening
Concrete and Rock
References
Applications
Fracture Toughness Testing of Metals
General Considerations
Specimen Configurations
Specimen Orientation
Fatigue Precracking
Instrumentation
Side Grooving
K[subscript Ic] Testing
ASTM E 399
Shortcomings of E 399 and Similar Standards
K-R Curve Testing
Specimen Design
Experimental Measurement of K-R Curves
J Testing of Metals
The Basic Test Procedure and J[subscript Ic] Measurements
J-R Curve Testing
Critical J Values for Unstable Fracture
CTOD Testing
Dynamic and Crack-Arrest Toughness
Rapid Loading in Fracture Testing
K[subscript Ia] Measurements
Fracture Testing of Weldments
Specimen Design and Fabrication
Notch Location and Orientation
Fatigue Precracking
Posttest Analysis
Testing and Analysis of Steels in the Ductile-Brittle Transition Region
Qualitative Toughness Tests
Charpy and Izod Impact Test
Drop Weight Test
Drop Weight Tear and Dynamic Tear Tests
Stress Intensity, Compliance, and Limit Load Solutions for Laboratory Specimens
References
Fracture Testing of Nonmetals
Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics
The Suitability of K and J for Polymers
K-Controlled Fracture
J-Controlled Fracture
Precracking and Other Practical Matters
K[subscript Ic] Testing
J Testing
Experimental Estimates of Time-Dependent Fracture Parameters
Qualitative Fracture Tests on Plastics
Interlaminar Toughness of Composites
Ceramics
Chevron-Notched Specimens
Bend Specimens Precracked by Bridge Indentation
References
Application to Structures
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
K[subscript 1] for Part-Through Cracks
Influence Coefficients for Polynomial Stress Distributions
Weight Functions for Arbitrary Loading
Primary, Secondary, and Residual Stresses
A Warning about LEFM
The CTOD Design Curve
Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Analysis
The EPRI J-Estimation Procedure
Theoretical Background
Estimation Equations
Comparison with Experimental J Estimates
The Reference Stress Approach
Ductile Instability Analysis
Some Practical Considerations
Failure Assessment Diagrams
Original Concept
J-Based FAD
Approximations of the FAD Curve
Estimating the Reference Stress
Application to Welded Structures
Incorporating Weld Residual Stresses
Weld Misalignment
Weld Strength Mismatch
Primary vs. Secondary Stresses in the FAD Method
Ductile-Tearing Analysis with the FAD
Standardized FAD-Based Procedures
Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics
Stress Intensity and Fully Plastic J Solutions for Selected Configurations
References
Fatigue Crack Propagation
Similitude in Fatigue
Empirical Fatigue Crack Growth Equations
Crack Closure
A Closer Look at Crack-Wedging Mechanisms
Effects of Loading Variables on Closure
The Fatigue Threshold
The Closure Model for the Threshold
A Two-Criterion Model
Threshold Behavior in Inert Environments
Variable Amplitude Loading and Retardation
Linear Damage Model for Variable Amplitude Fatigue
Reverse Plasticity at the Crack Tip
The Effect of Overloads and Underloads
Models for Retardation and Variable Amplitude Fatigue
Growth of Short Cracks
Microstructurally Short Cracks
Mechanically Short Cracks
Micromechanisms of Fatigue
Fatigue in Region II
Micromechanisms Near the Threshold
Fatigue at High [Delta]K Values
Fatigue Crack Growth Experiments
Crack Growth Rate and Threshold Measurement
Closure Measurements
A Proposed Experimental Definition of [Delta]K[subscript eff]
Damage Tolerance Methodology
Application of The J Contour Integral to Cyclic Loading
Definition of [Delta]J
Path Independence of [Delta]J
Small-Scale Yielding Limit
References
Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Metals
Corrosion Principles
Electrochemical Reactions
Corrosion Current and Polarization
Electrode Potential and Passivity
Cathodic Protection
Types of Corrosion
Environmental Cracking Overview
Terminology and Classification of Cracking Mechanisms
Occluded Chemistry of Cracks, Pits, and Crevices
Crack Growth Rate vs. Applied Stress Intensity
The Threshold for EAC
Small Crack Effects
Static, Cyclic, and Fluctuating Loads
Cracking Morphology
Life Prediction
Stress Corrosion Cracking
The Film Rupture Model
Crack Growth Rate in Stage II
Metallurgical Variables that Influence SCC
Corrosion Product Wedging
Hydrogen Embrittlement
Cracking Mechanisms
Variables that Affect Cracking Behavior
Loading Rate and Load History
Strength
Amount of Available Hydrogen
Temperature
Corrosion Fatigue
Time-Dependent and Cycle-Dependent Behavior
Typical Data
Mechanisms
Film Rupture Models
Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement
Surface Films
The Effect of Corrosion Product Wedging on Fatigue
Experimental Methods
Tests on Smooth Specimens
Fracture Mechanics Test Methods
References
Computational Fracture Mechanics
Overview of Numerical Methods
The Finite Element Method
The Boundary Integral Equation Method
Traditional Methods in Computational Fracture Mechanics
Stress and Displacement Matching
Elemental Crack Advance
Contour Integration
Virtual Crack Extension: Stiffness Derivative Formulation
Virtual Crack Extension: Continuum Approach
The Energy Domain Integral
Theoretical Background
Generalization to Three Dimensions
Finite Element Implementation
Mesh Design
Linear Elastic Convergence Study
Analysis of Growing Cracks
Properties of Singularity Elements
Quadrilateral Element
Triangular Element
References
Practice Problems
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Index

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