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Nutrition in Public Health Principles, Policies, and Practice

ISBN-10: 0849314739
ISBN-13: 9780849314735
Edition: 2007
List price: $159.95
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Description: Nutrition plays a key role in many areas of public health such as pre-term delivery, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. Government nutrition policy, therefore, bears a huge influence on the nation's biggest health  More...

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Book details

List price: $159.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 5/11/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.596
Language: English

Nutrition plays a key role in many areas of public health such as pre-term delivery, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. Government nutrition policy, therefore, bears a huge influence on the nation's biggest health concerns. There is a clear need for information on this topic that unarguably holds the key to the primary and secondary prevention of some of the major causes of premature death in the US.Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice provides an overview of the field and focuses on the role of the Federal Government in determining nutrition policy and practice. Beginning with a review of the definition and principles of public health, the book examines trends in the US population and nutritional epidemiology. It considers programs to help reduce disparities in the prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases among various populations, as well as a detailed chapter on obesity with discussions on global impact and cost, pediatric obesity, and the impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Specific information is included on breastfeeding mothers, HIV/AIDS, and prison inmates. The book offers a look at the current nutritional status and guidelines in the US before providing a set of tools for the responsible practice of public health nutrition such as conducting nutrition assessments, designing and carrying out social marketing campaigns, writing grant proposals, and enactingprograms to promote food security and ensure food supply and safety.Focusing on nutrition issues in the urban setting, Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice provides an integrated view of nutrition needs and the policies and political mechanisms that affect the delivery of quality food and nutrition services.

Nutrition in Public Health
Public Health
Core Functions and Essential Services
Key Responsibilities
Training in Public Health
Nutrition in Public Health
Nutrition in Community Health
Public Health Nutrition
Surveillance and Monitoring
Assessment, Program Planning, and Evaluation
Public Health Nutritionists
Training Public Health Nutrition Professionals
Community Nutrition
Community Nutritionists
Training Community Nutrition Professionals
Government's Role in Nutrition in Public Health
Federal Government
The U.S. Constitution
The Bill of Rights
The Legislative Branch of the Federal Government
The Executive Branch of the Federal Government
The Judicial Branch of the Federal Government
Nutrition in Public Health - The Book
Nutrition in Public Health Online
Distance Education and Electronic Enhancements for Traditional Instruction
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Preventing Disease or Promoting Health?
Introduction
Toward a Definition of Health
Brief Review of the History of Public Health
Disease Prevention
Current Health Behaviors of the U.S. Adult Population
Disease Promotion
History of Health Promotion
Roles of Health Promotion
Public Health Practitioners
Health Promotion in Its Current Incarnation
Toward Improved Health Promotion
Examples of Health Promotion Activities
Would a Health Promotion Model Neglect the Reality of Disease?
Health Promotion Is Political
Public Policy
Health Promotion and Universal Healthcare
Role of the Individual in Public Health
A New Definition of Public Health's Role
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
The U.S. Population - Looking Forward from the Past
Introduction
Minority Populations, Immigration, and Migration
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
The U.S. Census Bureau
Census Background
Uses of the Census
Population Profile of the U.S. in the 20th Century
The 2000 Census
Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Age
American Community Survey
Uses of ACS Responses
Census Information Online
U.S. Population Projections to 2050
Disease Forecasting Based on Population Projections
Case in Point: Diabetes
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Nutritional Epidemiology
Study Designs in Nutritional Epidemiology
Uses of Descriptive Studies
Prospective vs. Retrospective Studies
Case Reports and Case Series
Ecological or Correlational Studies
Examples of Ecological Studies
Ecological Fallacy
Cross-Sectional or Prevalence Studies
Case-Control Studies
Examples of Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Cohort Studies
Prospective Cohort Studies
Meta-Analyses
Controlled Trials
Nonrandom Controlled Trials
Randomized, Nonblind Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trials
Dietary Assessment
Observation
Self-Report
Diet Record (3-d, 7-d, etc.)
24-H Recall
Food Frequency Questionnaires and Checklists
Biomarkers
Improving Diet and Physical Activity Assessment Modalities
Technical Support
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Food and Nutrition Surveys for Monitoring the Public's Health
National Center for Health Statistics
Sociodemographic Data
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
Nutrition-Related Questions
Selected Results of the YRBSS
Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS)
Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS)
Selected Results from PedNSS and PNSS
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)
Selected Results from PRAMS
Other Databases
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Background
NHANES Methodology
NHANES Dietary Measures
Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG)
Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals
What We Eat in America
Nutrition Monitoring Activities by the USDA
Agricultural Research Service
Nutrient Data Laboratory
Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
Nutritive Value of Foods, Home and Garden Bulletin 72
Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS)
FoodLink and Pyramid Servings Database
Community Nutrition Research Group (CNRG)
Community Nutrition Mapping Project
Coordinated Federal Nutrition Monitoring
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Prevalence of Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: Disparities and Programs to Reduce Them
The Leading Diet-Related Chronic Diseases
Diet and Chronic Disease Prevention
General Prevention Guidelines
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Office of the Secretary
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP)
Office of Minority Health (OMH)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
The National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD)
Office of Disease Prevention (ODP)
CDC and REACH
Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT)
Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP)
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC)
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity (DNPA)
Overweight and Obesity
Age
Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
Socioeconomic Status
Diabetes
Epidemiology
Prevalence
Cost
Prediabetes
Metabolic Syndrome
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Treatment
National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP)
Diabetes in Children
Diagnosis
Prevalence
SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth
Metabolic Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
We Can!
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Heart Disease
Prevention
Hypertension
Prevalence
Prevention
Population-Based Strategies
Cancer
Prevention
Avoidance of Weight Gain
Alcohol
Fruits and Vegetables
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Weight Control: Challenges and Solutions
Defining Overweight and Obesity
Prevalence
Surveys
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010
Children
Prevalence among Children
The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS)
The Impact on Public Health
The Costs of Overweight and Obesity
The Global Picture
The Nutrition Transition and its Repercussions
Environmental Determinants of Overweight and Obesity
The Built Environment
The Economic Environment
U.S. Agricultural Policies
Advertising
Television Advertising Targeting Children
Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity
Food Insecurity, Energy Density, and Weight
The Food Environment
Food Away from Home
Portion Sizes
Snacks
School Food
Obesity Prevention
Dieting
Proposed Obesity Prevention Policies
Regulating Advertising to Children
Labeling and Taxation
School-Based Programs
Private, Nonprofit Organizations
Federal Programs
Workplace Wellness Programs
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Special Populations
Introduction
Lactating Mothers and Breastfed Infants
Breastfeeding Trends
Benefits of Breastfeeding
Physiologic
Nonphysiologic
Breastfeeding Surveillance
Ross Mother's Survey
National Immunization Survey
Sociodemographic Factors of Lactating Mothers
Geographic Considerations
Overcoming Barriers to Breastfeeding
Social Support
Education
Maternity Care Practices
Workplace Accommodations
State Legislation
Federal Policies and Initiatives to Support Breastfeeding
HIV/AIDS
Nutrition and HIV/AIDS
Nutritional Problems and HIV/AIDS
Inadequate Intake
Altered Absorption
Altered Nutrient Metabolism
AIDS Wasting and Lipodystrophy
Nutritional Care and HIV/AIDS
Screening and Referral
Medical Nutrition Therapy
The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act
Community-Based Programs
Prison Inmates
Constitutional Right to Healthcare
Correctional Health in Public Health
Jails and Prisons
Federal Detention
State Detention
Demographic Trends in Correctional Populations
Race and Ethnicity
Women
The Aging Inmate Population
Food Service in the Prison Systems
In the Federal System
In the State Systems
Dietary Needs of Juvenile Offenders
Nutrition-Related Chronic Diseases in Inmates
The Dietitian's Role
Dietary Guidelines
Reentry
Scenario
Resources and Professional Affiliations
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Cultural Competence
What Is Cultural Competence?
Why Is Cultural Competence Important?
Current and Projected Demographic Changes in the U.S.
Disparities in the Health Status of People of Diverse Backgrounds
Literacy, Language, and Healthcare
Age
Quality of Services and Health Outcomes
Legislative, Regulatory, and Accreditation Mandates
Participation in Treatment Decisions
Respect and Nondiscrimination
Sexual Orientation
Body Size
Consumer Responsibilities
Marketplace Factors
Nutrition Staff Development
Strategies for Nutritionists in Clinical Practice
Low Literacy Nutrition Education Materials
Foodways of the Major Ethnic/Racial Groups in the U.S.
African Americans
Teaching Implications
Hispanics
Mexican American
Puerto Rican
Cuban American
Dominican American
Asian Americans
Vietnamese
Hmong
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Food and Nutrition Politics, Policy, and Legislation
Making Policy
Case Study: Developing a National Nutrition Policy
Types of Food and Nutrition Policy
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
The Healthy People Initiative
Origins: 1979-1990
Healthy People 2000
Healthy People 2010
Midcourse Review
The President's Healthier US Initiative
Steps to a Healthier US Initiative
SmallStep.gov
Federal Action Steps
State and Local Action Steps
HealthierUS School Challenge
Local Wellness Policy
Components of a Local Wellness Policy
Assistance
Team Nutrition
Policy Regarding Food Allergies
Policy Regarding Micronutrients
Iodization of Salt
Fortification of Milk with Vitamins D and A
Enrichment and Fortification of Grain Products
Water
Policy Regarding Domestic Hunger
First Half of the 20th Century
Second Half of the 20th Century
U.S. Farm Policy and Health
Background
Farm Subsidies
Health Implications of Current U.S. Farm Policy
Corn and Soy
Produce
Environmental Implications of Current U.S. Farm Policy
Policy Changes
Proposals for the Next U.S. Farm Bill
Taking Action
Case Study: Promoting the Child Nutrition Promotion and School Lunch Protection Act
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Food and Nutrition Guidance
History of Federal Food and Nutrition Guidance
Food-Based Dietary Guidance - 1900s through the 1980s
The Food Guide Pyramid, 1992-2005
Nutrient-Based Guidance
Dietary Goals for the United States, 1977
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 1980-2004
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Current Federal Food, Nutrition, and Lifestyle Guidance
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005
The Guidelines and Steps to a HealthierUS
Dietary Advice
The Revised Healthy Eating Index (HEI)
Codex Alimentarius
Authoritative Statements
MyPyramid Food Guidance System, 2005
Dissension and Controversy
Disease Prevention Guidance from Federal and Voluntary Health Organizations
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Hypertension
Primary Prevention
Diabetes
Prediabetes
Primary Prevention
Cancer
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR)
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Food and Nutrition Assessment of the Community
Community Assessment
The Community Nutrition Assessment
Local Nutrition Surveillance
The Community Food Assessment
Community Food Assessment Projects
Food and Farming in Montana
The Community Food Security Assessment
Community Food Security Assessment in Sacramento
Conducting an Assessment
Organize a Team
Define the Community and the Scope of the Assessment
Data Collection
General Community Characteristics
Food Resource Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability
Household Food Security
Assessment of Food Production Resources
Funding and Budgets
Analyze and Present Data
Implement Findings
Geographic Information Systems
Examples of GIS in Food and Nutrition Programs
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Promoting Food Security
Parsing "Food Security"
Poverty in the U.S.
Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations
Hunger and Food Insecurity in the U.S.
Food-Insecure Households Spend Less for Food than Food-Secure Households
Nutrition Assistance Programs
Federal Food and Nutrition Programs
Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)
Nongovernment, Nonprofit Organizations
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Social Marketing and Other Mass Communication Techniques
Social Marketing
What a Social Marketing Communications Program Can Do
How Social Marketing Works
Product (Social Proposition)
Price (Cost)
Place (Accessibility)
Promotion (Communication)
Publics (Target Audiences)
Policy (Environmental Supports)
Partnerships (Alliances)
Purse Strings (Budget)
The Social Marketing Campaign
Plan the Approach
Select Channels and Materials
Develop and Pretest Materials and Methods
Logic Models
Implement the Program
Evaluate the Program
Refine the Program and Plan for Sustainability
Ethics in Social Marketing
Food and Nutrition Social Marketing Campaigns
Campaigns to Prevent Overweight and Obesity
Campaigns to Prevent Osteoporosis
Campaigns to Prevent Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Cancer
Campaigns to Prevent Foodborne Illness
Campaigns to Promote Health through Nutrition
Tailored Health Communication
Acronyms
References
Food Safety and Defense
Safety, Wholesomeness, and Labeling
Federal Authority
Legislation
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
States and Territories
Critique of the Food Safety Regulatory Apparatus
Epidemiology
Prevention
Surveillance Systems
FoodNet (CDC)
PulseNet (CDC)
Role of PulseNet in Outbreak Investigations
Foodborne Outbreak Response and Surveillance Unit (CDC)
Elexnet (FDA)
National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System (FDA, CDC, and USDA)
Additional Surveillance Systems
Numbers of Outbreaks and Cases
Emergency Management
Stafford Act
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Bioterroism
Industry Vulnerability
Bioterrorism Act
Homeland Security
National Response Plan (NRP)
Research and Development
Preparing Leaders
Disaster Response
Food and Water
Mass Care, Housing, and Human Services
Public Health and Medical Services
Role of Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) and USDA
Organization
Disaster Food Stamp Program
Commodity Donations
Public Nutrition
Preparing the Public
Food SAFE (Shelf Available for Emergencies)
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Grants to Support Initiatives in Public Health Nutrition
Funding Sources
Programs in the Public Sector (Tax-Supported Programs)
Health and Human Services
United States Department of Agriculture
The Private Sector
Grant Application Mechanisms
Grantmaker-Initiated Requests for Proposals
Grantseeker-Initiated Requests for Proposals
NIH RO1
NIH RO3
In-Kind Support
Grant Applications
Grantwriting
Characteristics of the Successful Grant Application
Parts of the Proposal
Abstract or Executive Summary
Introduction
Statement of Need
Goals and Objectives
Methods
Evaluation
Future Funding
Budget
Appendices
Small Awards
Conclusion
Acronyms
References
Index

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