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Soil and Water Chemistry

ISBN-10: 0849312582
ISBN-13: 9780849312588
Edition: 2004
List price: $89.95
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Description: Traditionally the study of chemical principles as they relate to soil has been limited to the field of agronomics. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, stands alone because it balances agricultural and environmental perspectives in its  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 10/29/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 552
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Traditionally the study of chemical principles as they relate to soil has been limited to the field of agronomics. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, stands alone because it balances agricultural and environmental perspectives in its analysis of the chemical properties and processes that affect organic and inorganic soil substances.Written for soil science practitioners, researchers, and students, this book provides a comprehensive treatment of soil composition and reactions. Topics include: clay mineralogy, soil organic matter, mineral weathering and stability, ion speciation, solubility, ion exchange, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, acidity, alkalinity, and salinity. Each chapter concludes with numerous exercises that emphasize concepts and have practical, real-world applications.

The Soil Chemical Environment: An Overview
Phases and Chemical Processes in Soil
Intraphase Soil Processes
Interphase Soil Processes
Elements in the Soil Environment: Their Concentrations and Important Species
Units and Conversions
Heterogeneity of Soil Chemical Characteristics
Descriptive Statistical Properties
Geostatistics
Variograms
Interpolation by Kriging
Exercises
References
Soil Minerals
Chemical Bonds
Pauling's Rules
Crystal Structure
Silicate Classes
Nesosilicates
Sorosilicates
Cyclosilicates
Inosilicates
Phyllosilicates
Tectosilicates
Clay Mineralogy
Division 1:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
Division 2:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
Pyrophyllite Group
Smectite Group
Vermiculite Group
Mica and Illite Groups
Chlorite Group
Interstratified Layer Silicates
Hydrous Metal Oxides
Hydrous Aluminum Oxides
Hydrous Iron Oxides
Hydrous Manganese Oxides
Allophane and Imogolite
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
Principles
Clay Mineral Characterization
Exercises
References
Chemical Weathering
Hydrolysis and Oxidation
Balancing Chemical Reactions
Mineral Stability: Primary Silicates in the Sand- and Silt-Sized Fractions
Mineral Stability: Clay-Sized Fraction
Weathering and Formation Characteristics of the Phyllosilicates
Mica
Chlorite
Vermiculite
Smectite
General Weathering Scheme for the Phyllosilicates
Exercises
References
Organic Matter in Soil
Determination of Soil Organic Carbon Concentrations
Organic Functional Groups: A Review
Nonhumic Substances
Carbohydrates
Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus Compounds
Lipids
Lignins
Humic Substances
Genesis of Humic Substances
Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Humic Substances
Elemental Content
Functional Groups and Structural Components
Molecular Mass and Configuration
Exercises
References
Soil Water Chemistry
Nature of Water
Ion Hydration
Electrolyte Solutions
Hydrolysis of Cations
Lowry-Bronsted Acids and Bases
Complex Ions and Ion Pairs
Stability of Soluble Complexes
The Irving and Williams Series
Metal-Fulvate Interactions
The Ion Association Model
Ion Speciation in Soil Solution
Acid Soil Solution
alkaline Soil Solution
Qualitative Aspects of Ion Speciation
Soil Water Sampling Methodologies
In Situ Soil Water Sampling
Ex Situ Soil Water Sampling
Methods of Chemical Analysis: Elemental Analysis
Atomic Spectrometry
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Atomic Emission Spectrometry
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Inductively Coupled (Argon) Plasma Spectrometry
Exercises
References
Mineral Solubility
Mineral Solubility: Basic Principles
Mineralogical Controls on Ion Activities in Soil Solutions
The Ion Activity Product and Relative Saturation
Application of Mineral Solubility Principles: Impediments
The Estimation of Standard Free Energies of Formation
Metastability and the Step Rule
The Deviation of K[subscript sp] from K[subscript dis]
Poorly Crystalline and Microcrystalline Solids
Solid Solutions
Mineral Solubility and Solution Composition
Stability Diagrams
Activity Diagrams
Activity Ratio Diagrams
The Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant
In Situ Stabilization: Observed and Predicted Transformations of Metallic Lead in Alkaline Soil
Predominance Diagrams
Predicting Solution Composition
Exercises
References
Surface Chemistry and Adsorption Reactions
Surface Functional Groups and Complexes
Inorganic Soil Particle Surfaces and the Source of Charge
Surface Complexes
The Solid-Solution Interface: A Microscopic View
Surface Charge Density
Points of Zero Charge
The Electric Double-Layer
Quantitative Description of Adsorption
The Adsorption Isotherm
Linear Partition Theory
Adsorption Kinetics and Desorption Hysteresis
Specific Retention of Metals and Ligands
Ligand Effects on Metal Adsorption
Organic Surface Functional Groups and Organic Molecular Retention Mechanisms
Organic Surface Functional Groups
Molecular Retention Mechanisms
Surface Complexation Models
The Nonelectrostatic Model
Electrostatic Effects on Adsorption
The Constant Capacitance Model
The Modified Triple Layer Model
Exercises
References
Cation Exchange
Cation Exchange: A Beginning for Soil Chemistry
Qualitative Aspects of Cation Exchange
Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Phase Composition
Exchange Phase Composition
Methods of Measuring the Cation Exchange Capacity
Ammonium Acetate (pH 7 or 8.2)
Cation Exchange Capacity of Arid Land Soils
Cation Exchange Capacity of Acid Soils
Unbuffered Salt Extraction
Quantitative Description of Cation Exchange
Cation Exchange Selectivity
Kerr Selectivity Coefficient
Vanselow Selectivity Coefficient
Rothmund and Kornfeld Selectivity Coefficient
Gapon Selectivity Coefficient
Gaines and Thomas Selectivity Coefficient
Davies Selectivity Coefficient
Regular Solution Model
Exchange Isotherms and Preference
Exchange Equilibrium Constant
Exercises
References
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Soils
The Electron Activity
Redox Potential Measurements
Redox Status in Soils
Reduction-Oxidation Sequences in Soils
Redox Zones
pe-pH Predominance Diagrams
Construction of pe-pH Diagrams: The Cr-H[subscript 2]O System
Examples of pe-pH Diagrams for Redox-Sensitive Elements
Iron and Manganese
Selenium
Arsenic
Exercises
References
Acidity in Soil Materials
The Measurement of Soil Solution pH
The pH Electrode System
Soil Solution pH
Chemical and Biochemical Processes that Influence Soil Solution pH
Acid-Neutralizing Capacity and the Quantification of Soil Acidity
Neutralization of Soil Acidity
Acid Generation and Management in Mine Spoils: The Oxidation of Pyrite
Acid Generation and Neutralization in Pyritic Wastes
Pyritic Mine Spoil Reclamation: Case Study
Exercises
References
Soil Salinity and Sodicity
Sources of Salts
Diagnostic Characteristics of Saline and Sodic Soils
Irrigation Water Quality Parameters and Relationships
Genesis, Management, and Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils
Saline Soils
Sodic Soils
Classification of Sodic Soils
Flocculation and Dispersion in Colloidal Suspensions
Genesis and Management of Sodic Soils
Sodic Mine Spoil Reclamation
Exercises
References
Index

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