Fluid Power Circuits and Controls Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN-10: 0849309247
ISBN-13: 9780849309243
Edition: 2001
Authors: John S. Cundiff
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Description: Engineers not only need to understand the basics of how fluid power components work, but they must also be able to design these components into systems and analyze or model fluid power systems and circuits. There has long been a need for a  More...

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Book details

List price: $167.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 6/28/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 560
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Engineers not only need to understand the basics of how fluid power components work, but they must also be able to design these components into systems and analyze or model fluid power systems and circuits. There has long been a need for a comprehensive text on fluid power systems, written from an engineering perspective, which is suitable for an undergraduate-level course in fluid power.Fluid Power Circuits and Controls: Fundamentals and Applications encourages students to think of the collection of components as a system. The author illustrates each concept with a circuit diagram, and as each component is discussed, immediately places it in a circuit and analyzes its performance. This approach allows students to immediately apply what they have learned and encourages them to think about how the component operating characteristics interact with the rest of the circuit.Covering all aspects of the industry, this book: Develops the basic concept for power delivery with fluids Reviews basic concepts of fluid mechanics and discusses the key properties of the fluids Discusses the creation and control of flow and the various methods used to control pressure in a circuit Provides a detailed example of the classic problem of hydrostatic transmission design Presents characteristics of auxiliary components and applicable SAE standards Addresses pneumatics, focusing on the difference in power transmission for liquid and gas Discusses servo valves and proportional valves without requiring a background in automatic controlsThe text is richly illustrated, filled with fully worked example problems, and reinforced with exercises in each chapter. Fluid Power Circuits and Controls offers valuable design experience and the background its readers need to approach real-world fluid power problems with confidence.

Preface
Brief Overview of Fluid Power
Introduction
Concept of Fluid Power
Basic Circuits
Basic Circuit Analysis
Efficiency
Summary
Fluid Power Basics
Introduction
Fluid Statics
Hydrostatic Pressure
Conservation of Mass
Functions of a Working Fluid
Fluid Properties
Viscosity
Bulk Modulus
Specific Gravity
Other Fluid Properties
Flow in Lines
Reynolds Number
Darcy's Equation
Losses in Fittings
Leakage Flow
Orifice Equation
Analysis to Illustrate Use of Orifice Equation
Use of Orifice Equation to Analyze Pressure Reducing Valve
Summary
Data for Selected Hydraulic Fluids
Pressure Control
Introduction
Review of Needed Symbols
Relief Valve
Direct-Acting Relief Valve
Pilot-Operated Relief Valve
Example Circuits Using Pilot-Operated Relief Valves
Unloading Valve
Sequence Valve and Pressure-Reducing Valve
Sequence Valve
Pressure-Reducing Valve
Counterbalance Valve and Brake Valve
Counterbalance Valve
Brake Valve
Summary
Creation and Control of Fluid Flow
Introduction
Fixed Displacement Pumps
Fixed Displacement Pump Circuits
Variable Displacement Pump Circuits
Vane Pump
Piston Pump
Improvement in Efficiency with Load Sensing
Comparison of Pump Performance Characteristics for Three Main Designs
Gerotor Pump
Vane Pump
Axial Piston Pump
Multiple Pump Circuits
Pump Mounts
Flow Control Valves
Flow Dividers
Circuits Using Flow Control Valves
Summary
Rotary Actuators
Introduction
Stall Torque Efficiency
Typical Performance Data for a Gear Motor
Comparison of Motor Performance Characteristics for Three Main Designs
Gear Motor
Vane Motor
Piston Motor
Performance Characteristics of Low-Speed, High-Torque Motors
Geroler Motor (Disc Valve)
Vane Motor (Low-Speed, High-Torque)
Design Example for Gear Motor Application
Functional Requirements
Other Design Considerations
Interaction of Pump and Motor Characteristics
Bent Axis Motors
Design Considerations for Bent Axis Motors
Performance Advantage of Bent Axis Design
Radial Piston Motors
Motor-Gearbox Combinations
Oscillating Actuator
Summary
Curve Fitting Technique
Hydrostatic Transmissions
Introduction
Mechanical Transmissions
Torque Converters
Shift Control of Automatic Transmission
Summary
Introduction to Hydrostatic Transmissions
Hydrostatic Transmissions for Vehicle Propulsion
Comparison of Hydrostatic and Mechanical Drives
Advantages of Hydrostatic Transmissions
Different Configurations of Hydrostatic Transmissions to Propel Vehicles
Hydrostatic Transmission with Two Wheel Motors
Hydrostatic Transmission with Final Drives
Hydrostatic Transmission with Variable Speed Motors
Vehicle with Two Hydrostatic Transmissions
Hydrostatic Drive for Three-Wheel Vehicle
Hydrostatic Transmission for Four-Wheel Drive Vehicle
Summary
Classification of Hydrostatic Transmissions
Closed-Circuit Hydrostatic Transmissions
Charge Pump
Shuttle Valve
Cross-Port Relief Valves
Multipurpose Valves
Summary
Closed-Circuit, Closed-Loop Hydrostatic Transmissions
Review of Pump and Motor Operating Characteristics
Servo-Controlled Pump
Servo Valve Circuit
Response Time for Closed-Loop Circuit
Operation of Closed-Circuit, Closed-Loop Hydrostatic Transmission
Hydrostatic Transmission Design
Hydrostatic Drive for Sweet Sorghum Harvester
Example Solution for Design of Hydrostatic Drive for Sweet Sorghum Harvester
Summary
Basic Concepts in Traction
Selected Catalog Data for Hydrostatic Transmission Design Problems
Linear Actuators
Introduction
Analysis of Cylinders in Parallel and Series
Synchronization of Cylinders
Orifice-Type Flow Divider
Gear-Type Flow Divider
Mechanical Coupling
Cushioning
Rephasing of Cylinders
Presses
Pilot-Operated Check Valve
Load-Locking Circuit
Load Analysis
Analysis of Acceleration of a Load with a Cylinder
One Method for Incorporating the Influence of Various Factors during Acceleration Event
Types of Cylinders
Cylinder Selection
Cylinder Failure
Cylinder Construction
Summary
Temperature and Contamination Control
Introduction
Temperature Control
Methods for Cooling Hydraulic Oil
Heat Transfer from Reservoir
Heat Generated by the System
Design Example
Temperature Control Summary
Contamination Control
Sources of Contamination
Quantifying Fluid Cleanliness
Effects of Contamination on Various Components
Setting a Target Cleanliness Level
Achieving a Target Cleanliness Level
Monitoring the System Cleanliness Level
Summary
Auxiliary Components
Introduction
Reservoir
Reservoir Construction
Hydraulic Lines
Pipe
Hydraulic Tubing
Hydraulic Hose
Fluid Velocity in Conductors
Options for Connecting Components
Manifolds
Quick-Disconnect Coupling
Installation of Lines
Recommended Practices for Hydraulic Hose
Environmental Issues
Design Life of Components
System Integration
Port Connections
Tube or Hose Connections
Assembly
Summary
Selected Design Data for Fluid Conductors
Pneumatics
Introduction
Orifice Equation
Compressors
Reciprocating Piston Compressor
Diaphragm Compressor
Sliding Vane Rotary Compressor
Cooling
Receiver
Pipelines
Preparation of Compressed Air
Drying of Air
Air Filtration
Pressure Regulation
Compressed Air Lubrication
Service Units
Cylinders
Single-Acting Cylinders
Diaphragm Cylinder
Rolling Diaphragm Cylinders
Double-Acting Cylinders
Impact Cylinder
Free Air Consumption by Cylinders
Motors
Types of Pneumatic Motors
Characteristics of Pneumatic Motors
Additional Actuator Units
Cylinder with Mounted Air Control Block
Hydropneumatic Feed Unit
Feed Unit
Rotary Index Table
Air Cushion Sliding Table
Valves
Valve Symbols
Valve Design
Poppet Valves
Slide Valves
Other Valves
Summary
Standard Conditions
Servo Valves
Introduction
Concept
Feedback
Programmable Orifice
Control of Pump Displacement
Basic Servo Systems
Servo Valve Construction
Torque Motor
Methods for Shifting Servo Valve Spool
Valve Construction
Valve Performance
Rated Flow
Pressure Drop
Internal Leakage
Hysteresis
Threshold
Gain
Frequency Response
Phase Lag
Summary
Types of Servo Systems
Hydromechanical Servo System
Electrohydraulic Servo Systems
Servo Amplifiers
Servo Analysis
Open-Loop Gain
Natural Frequency
Error Terms
Introduction to the Laplace Domain
Summary
Proportional Valves
Introduction
Types of Proportional Valves
Force-Controlled Proportional Valves
Summary
Stroke-Controlled Proportional Valves
Analysis of Proportional Directional Control Valve
Overrunning Load
Resistive Load
How a Proportional Direction Control Valve Functions in a Circuit
Comparison of Servo and Proportional Valves
Summary
Summary of Equations
Index

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