Art of Systems Architecting

ISBN-10: 0849304407
ISBN-13: 9780849304408
Edition: 2nd 2001 (Revised)
List price: $104.95
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Description: Today's architecting must handle systems of types unknown until very recently. New domains, including personal computers, intersatellite networks, health services, and joint service command and control are calling for new architectures-and for  More...

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Book details

List price: $104.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 6/28/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 344
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Today's architecting must handle systems of types unknown until very recently. New domains, including personal computers, intersatellite networks, health services, and joint service command and control are calling for new architectures-and for architects specializing in those domains. Since the original publication, of this bestselling text, these new and emerging fields have contributed architectural concepts and tools of their own to the relatively new formalism-and evolving profession-called Systems Architecting.The Art of Systems Architecting, Second Edition restates and extends into the future the classical architecting paradigm, incorporating the most broadly applicable of these contributions. It remains the most innovative, insightful treatment available to the discipline, providing both the academic and the industrial communities with the up-to-date tools, concepts, and techniques needed to conceive and build complex systems.

Introduction--The Art of Architecting
A brief review of classical architecting methods
Different methods for different phases of architecting
Extending the Architecting Paradigm
Introduction: the classical architecting paradigm
Responding to complexity
The high rate of advances in the computer and information sciences
The foundations of modern systems architecting
A systems approach
A purpose orientation
A modeling methodology
Ultraquality implementation
Certification
Insights and heuristics
The architecture paradigm summarized
The waterfall model of systems acquisition
Spirals, increments, and collaborative assembly
Summary and conclusions
Notes and references
Heuristics as Tools
Introduction: a metaphor
Heuristics as abstractions of experience
Selecting a personal kit of heuristic tools
Using heuristics
Heuristics on heuristics
Generating useful heuristics
Applying heuristics
A taxonomy of heuristics
New directions
Summary
Notes and references
New Domains, New Insights
Builder-Architected Systems
Introduction: the form-first paradigm
Incremental development for an existing customer
New markets for existing products
New products, new markets
Technological substitutions within existing systems
Consequences of uncertainty of end purpose
Reducing the risks of uncertainty of end purpose
Risk management by intermediate goals
The "what next" quandary
Controlling the critical features of the architecture
Abandonment of an obsolete architecture
Creating innovative teams
Architecting "revolutionary" systems
Systems architecting and basic research
Heuristics for architecting technology-driven systems
General
Specialized
Summary
Exercises
Notes and references
Manufacturing Systems
Introduction: the manufacturing domain
Architectural innovations in manufacturing
Ultraquality systems
Dynamic manufacturing systems
Intersecting waterfalls
The spiral-to-circle model
Concurrent engineering
Feedback systems
Lean production
Flexible manufacturing
Heuristics for architecting manufacturing systems
In conclusion
Exercises
Notes and references
Social Systems
Introduction: defining sociotechnical systems
Public participation
The foundations of sociotechnical systems architecting
The separation of client and user
Socioeconomic insights
The interaction between the public and private sectors
Facts vs. perceptions: an added tension
Heuristics for social systems
In conclusion
Exercises
Notes and references
Software and Information Technology Systems
Introduction: The status of software architecting
Software as a system component
Software for modern systems
Systems, software, and process models
Waterfalls for software?
Spirals for hardware?
Integration: spirals and circles
The problem of hierarchy
Object-orientation
Layered design
Large, autonomous components
Reconciling the hierarchies
The role of architecture in software-centered systems
Programming languages, models, and expressions
Architectures, "unifying" models, and visions
Directions in software architecting
Architectural styles
Architecture through composition
Heuristics and guidelines in software
Exercises
Notes and references
Collaborative Systems
Introduction: collaboration as a category
Collaborative system examples
The Internet
Intelligent transportation systems
Joint air defense systems
Analogies for architecting collaborative systems
Collaborative system heuristics
Stable intermediate forms
Policy triage
Leverage at the interfaces
Ensuring cooperation
Variations on the collaborative theme
Misclassification
Standards and collaborative systems
Conclusions
Exercises
Notes and references
Exercise to Close Part Two
Models and Modeling
Introduction to Part Three
A civil architecture analogy
Guide to Part Three
Representation Models and System Architecting
Introduction: roles, views, and models
Roles of models
Models, viewpoints, and views
Classification of models by view
Note to the reader
Objectives and purpose models
Models of form
Scale models
Block diagrams
Behavioral (functional) models
Threads and scenarios
Data and event flow networks
Mathematical systems theory
Autonomous agent, chaotic systems
Public choice and behavior models
Performance models
Formal methods
Data models
Managerial models
Examples of interated models
Summary
Exercises
Notes and references
Design Progression in System Architecting
Introduction: architecting process components
Design progression
Introduction by examples
Design as the evolution of models
Evaluation criteria and heuristic refinement
Progression of emphasis
Concurrent progressions
Episodic nature
Design concepts for systems architecture
Historical approaches to architecting
Specialized and formalized heuristics
Scoping, aggregation, partitioning, and certification
Scoping
Aggregation and partitioning
Certification
Certainty, rationality, and choice
Stopping or progressing?
Architecture and design disciplines
Architecture and patterns
Conclusions
Exercises
Notes and references
Integrated Modeling Methodologies
Introduction
General integrated models
Hatley/Pirbhai--computer-based reactive systems
Example: microsatellite imaging system
Quantitative QFD (Q[superscript 2]FD)--performance-driven systems
Integrated modeling and software
Structured analysis and design
ADARTS
OMT
UML
Performance integration: scheduling
Integrated models for manufacturing systems
Integrated models for sociotechnical systems
Conclusions
Exercises
Notes and references
Architecture Frameworks
Introduction
Defining an architecture framework
Goals of the framework
Understanding "architectural level"
Organization of an architecture description framework
Current architecture frameworks
U.S. DoD C4ISR
Summary information
Operational view
System view
Technical view
Evaluation of the C4ISR framework
ISO RM-ODP
Proprietary and semi-open information technology standards
IEEE P1471
P1471 concepts
P1471 normative requirements
Research directions
Conclusions
Notes and references
The Systems Architecting Profession
The Political Process and Systems Architecting
Introduction: the political challenge
Politics as a design factor
The first skill to master
Heuristics in the political process: "the facts of life"
Fact of life #1
Fact of life #2
Fact of life #3
Fact of life #4
Fact of life #5
A few more skills to master
Conclusion
The Professionalization of Systems Architecting
Introduction
The profession of systems engineering
Systems architecting and systems standards
The origins of systems standards
The ballistic missile program of the 1950s
The beginning of a new era of standards
EIA/IS 632, an architectural perspective
Commercial standards
IEEE 1220, an architectural perspective
Company standards
A summary of standards developments, 1950-1995
Systems architecting graduate education
Systems engineering universities and systems architecting
Curriculum design
Advanced study in systems architecting
Professional societies and publications
Conclusion: an assessment of the profession
Notes and references
Appendices
Heuristics for Systems-Level Architecting
Introduction: organizing the list
Heuristic tool list
Multitask heuristics
Scoping and planning
Modeling
Prioritizing (trades, options, and choices)
Aggregating ("chunking")
Partitioning (decompositioning)
Integrating
Certifying (system integrity, quality, and vision)
Assessing performance, cost, schedule, and risk
Rearchitecting, evolving, modifying, and adapting
Exercises
Notes and references
Reference Texts for Suggested for Institutional Libraries
Architecting background
Management
Modeling
Specialty areas
Software
System sciences
System thinking
On Defining Architecture and Other Terms
Defining "Architecture"
Webster's Dictionary definition
This book
IEEE Architecture Working Group (AWG)
INCOSE SAWG
MIL-STD-498
Perry-Garlan
Maier's tongue-in-cheek rule of thumb
Internet discussion
Summary
Models, viewpoints, and views
Working definitions
Consistency and completeness
Notes and references
Glossary
Indexes

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