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Sensory Evaluation Techniques

ISBN-10: 0849302765
ISBN-13: 9780849302763
Edition: 3rd 1999 (Revised)
List price: $134.95
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Book details

List price: $134.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication date: 6/24/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 416
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Introduction to Sensory Techniques
Development of Sensory Testing
Human Subjects as Instruments
Conducting a Sensory Study
Sensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive Them
Sensory Attributes
Consistency and Texture
The Human Senses
Chemical/Trigeminal Factors
Perception at Threshold and Above
Controls for Test Room, Product, and Panel
Test Controls
Development of Test Room Design
Test Room Design
The Booth
Descriptive Evaluation and Training Area
Preparation Area
Office Facilities
Entrance and Exit Areas
General Design Factors
Color and Lighting
Air Circulation, Temperature, and Humidity
Construction Materials
Product Controls
General Equipment
Sample Preparation
Supplies and Equipment
Preparation Procedures
Sample Presentation
Container, Sample Size, and Other Particulars
Order, Coding, and Number of Samples
Product Sampling
Panelist Controls
Panel Training or Orientation
Product/Time of Day
Factors Influencing Sensory Verdicts
Physiological Factors
Enhancement or Suppression
Psychological Factors
Expectation Error
Error of Habituation
Stimulus Error
Logical Error
Halo Effect
Order of Presentation of Samples
Mutual Suggestion
Lack of Motivation
Capriciousness vs. Timidity
Poor Physical Condition
Measuring Responses
Psychophysical Theory
Fechner's Law
Stevens' Law
The Beidler Model
Category Scaling
Line Scales
Magnitude Estimation Scaling
Overall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist Between Samples?
The Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing
Triangle Test
Duo-Trio Test
Two-out-of-Five Test
Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)
"A" - not "A" Test
Difference-from-Control Test
Sequential Tests
Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ Between Samples?
Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs
Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples
Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis--Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs
Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests -- Block Designs
Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis -- Randomized (Complete) Block Design
Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach -- Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design) -- Friedman Analysis
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design) -- Evaluation by Analysis of Variance
Determining Thresholds
Applications of Threshold Determinations
Example 8.1: Threshold of Sunstruck Flavor Compound Added to Beer
Example 8.2: Threshold of Isovaleric Acid in Air
Selection and Training of Panel Members
Panel Development
Selection and Training for Difference Tests
Matching Tests
Detection/Discrimination Tests
Ranking/Rating Tests for Intensity
Interpretation of Results of Screening Tests
Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing
Selection for Descriptive Testing
Prescreening Questionnaires
Acuity Tests
Ranking/Rating Screening Tests for Descriptive Analysis
Personal Interview
Training for Descriptive Testing
Terminology Development
Introduction to Descriptive Scaling
Initial Practice
Small Product Differences
Final Practice
Panel Performance and Motivation
Panelist Maintenance, Feedback, Rewards, and Motivation
Prescreening Questionnaires
Prescreening Questionnaire for a Tactile Panel (Skinfeel or Fabric Feel)
Prescreening Questionnaire for a Flavor Panel
Prescreening Questionnaire for an Oral Texture Panel
Prescreening Questionnaire for a Fragrance Panel
Scaling Exercises
Descriptive Analysis Techniques
Field of Application
Components of Descriptive Analysis
Characteristics: the Qualitative Aspect
Intensity: the Quantitative Aspect
Order of Appearance: the Time Aspect
Overall Impression: the Integrated Aspect
Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods
The Flavor Profile Method
The Texture Profile Method
The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) Method
The Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
Time-Intensity Descriptive Analysis
Free-Choice Profiling
The Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
Designing a Descriptive Procedure
Other Options
Modified Short-Version Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies, etc.
Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis
Terms Used to Describe Appearance
Terms Used to Describe Flavor (General and Baked Goods)
Example: Flavor Terminology of Baked Goods
Terms Used to Describe Semisolid Oral Texture
Example: Semisolid Texture Terminology -- Oral Texture of Peanut Butter
Terms Used to Describe Solid Oral Texture
Example: Solid Texture Terminology of Oral Texture of Cookies
Terms Used to Describe Skinfeel of Lotions and Creams
Terms Used to Describe Handfeel of Fabric and Paper
Terms Used to Describe the Feel of Hair (Wet and Dry)
Terms Used to Describe the Lather and Skinfeel of Bar Soap
Terms Used to Describe the Skinfeel of Antiperspirants
Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for Some Common Aromatics
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for the Four Basic Tastes
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for Semisolid Oral Texture Attributes
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for Solid Oral Texture Attributes
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for Skinfeel Texture Attributes
Intensity Scale Values (0 to 15) for Fabricfeel Attributes
Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Product Lexicons
Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Full Product Descriptions
White Bread
Peanut Butter
Marinara Sauce
Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises
Basic Taste Combinations Exercise
Cookie Variation Exercise
Effective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel Acceptance Tests
Purpose and Applications
Product Maintenance
Product Improvement/Optimization
Development of New Products
Assessment of Market Potential
Category Review
Support for Advertising Claims
The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests
Sampling and Demographics
Source of Test Subjects: Employees, Local Residents, the General Population
Choice of Test Location
Laboratory Test
Central Location Tests
Home Use Tests
Affective Methods: Qualitative
Types of Qualitative Affective Tests
Focus Groups
Focus Panels
One-on-One Interviews
Affective Methods: Quantitative
Types of Quantitative Affective Tests
Preference Tests
Acceptance Tests
Assessment of Individual Attributes (Attribute Diagnostics)
Design of Quantitative Affective Tests
Questionnaire Design
Protocol Design
Using Other Sensory Methods to Supplement Affective Testing
Relating Affective and Descriptive Data
Using Affective Data to Define Shelf-Life or Quality Limits
Example 12.3: Shelf Life of Sesame Cracker
Questionnaire for Consumer Studies
Candy Bar Questionnaire
Candy Bar Liking Questions
Candy Bar Specific Evaluation
Paper Table Napkins Questionnaire
Paper Table Napkins Liking Questions
Paper Table Napkins Specific Evaluation
Protocol Design for Consumer Studies
Protocol Design Format Worksheets
Product Screening
Sample Information
Sample Preparation
Sample Presentation
Protocol Design Example: Candy Bars
Product Screening
Sample Information
Sample Preparation
Sample Presentation
Basic Statistical Methods
Summarizing Sensory Data
Summary Analysis of Data in the Form of Ratings
Estimating the Proportion of a Population that Possesses a Particular Characteristic
Confidence Intervals on [mu] and p
Other Interval Estimates
Data Transformations
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Statistical Hypotheses
One-Sided and Two-Sided Hypotheses
Type I and Type II Errors
Examples: Tests on Means, Standard Deviations, and Proportions
Example 13.1: Testing that the Mean of a Distribution is Equal to a Specified Value
Example 13.2: Comparing Two Means -- Paired-Sample Case
Example 13.3: Comparing Two Means -- Independent (or Two-Sample) Case
Example 13.4: Comparing Standard Deviations from Two Normal Populations
Example 13.5: Testing that the Population Proportion is Equal to a Specified Value
Example 13.6: Comparing Two Population Proportions
Calculating Sample Sizes in Discrimination Tests
The Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies
Sampling: Replication vs. Multiple Observations
Blocking an Experimental Design
Completely Randomized Designs
Randomized (Complete) Block Designs
Randomized Block Analysis of Ratings
Randomized Block Analysis of Rank Data
Balanced Incomplete Block Designs
BIB Analysis of Ratings
BIB Analysis of Rank Data
Latin Square Designs
Split-Plot Designs
Split-Plot Analysis of Ratings
A Simultaneous Multiple Comparison Procedure
Appendix on Probability
The Normal Distribution
Example 13.7: Calculating Normal Probabilities on an Interval
Example 13.8: Calculating Normal Tail Probabilities
The Binomial Distribution
Example 13.9: Calculating Exact Binomial Probabilities
Example 13.10: The Normal Approximation to the Binomial
Advanced Statistical Methods
Data Relationships
All Independent Variables
Correlation Analysis
Principal Components Analysis
Cluster Analysis
Dependent and Independent Variables
Regression Analysis
Simple Linear Regression
Multiple Linear Regression
Principal Component Regression
Partial Least Squares Regression
Discriminant Analysis
The Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design
Factorial Treatment Structures
Fractional Factorials and Screening Studies
Constructing Fractional Factorials
Plackett-Burman Experiments
Analysis of Screening Studies
Response Surface Methodology
Guidelines for Choice of Technique
Define the Project Objective
Define the Test Objective
Reissue Project Objective and Test Objectives -- Revise Test Design
Types of Problems Encountered in Sensory Analysis
Area of Application of Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist Between Samples?
Area of Application of Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ Between Samples?
Area of Application of Affective Tests Used in Consumer Tests and Employee Acceptance Tests
Area of Application of Descriptive Tests
Guidelines for Reporting Results
Results and Discussion

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