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Strategies for Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Settings

ISBN-10: 0827383525
ISBN-13: 9780827383524
Edition: 2001
List price: $179.95 Buy it from $5.23
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Description: This practical, hands-on guide is required reading for early childhood professionals who work with children with special needs - from ECE professionals to parents. It includes information on the most common disabilities, including cerebral palsy,  More...

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Book details

List price: $179.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Delmar Cengage Learning
Publication date: 12/28/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 2.838
Language: English

This practical, hands-on guide is required reading for early childhood professionals who work with children with special needs - from ECE professionals to parents. It includes information on the most common disabilities, including cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, visual impairment, and behavior disorders, as well as strategies and activities to facilitate the children's participation in all components of the daily routine. It also shows how to adapt common early childhood activities for children of varying abilities to maximize their achievements. This is an invaluable resource to promote success in school for all children.

Dr. M. Diane Klein is a speech and language pathologist, as well as a professor of early childhood special education. She is a member of various professional organizations including the Council on Exceptional Children, the American Speech Language Hearing Association, and the Division for Childhood Communication Disorders. She is a frequent lecturer at conventions and seminars and is the keynote speaker for the Southwest Los Angeles County Special Education Preschool Staff Development conference in April 2000.

Ruth E. Cook is a Professor of Early Childhood Special Education, at Santa Clara Univeristy in Santa Clara, California.

Anne Marie Richardson-Gibbs is the Director of the Centro di Ninos y Padres Early Intervention Center, at California State University in Los Angeles, California.

Preface
Introduction
Special Education Foundations: Understanding Special Needs and Generic Instructional Strategies
Generic Instructional Strategies Supporting the Inclusion of Young Children with Special Needs
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Getting Their Attention: Challenges in Motivating Young Children
Specific Challenges
Difficult-to-Read Cues
Conducting a High-Preference Inventory
Unique Ways of Expressing Interest and Attention
Working in the Learning Zone: Understanding the Zone of Proximal Development
Scaffolding
Doing It Again and Again: The Importance of Repetition and Routine
Creating Predictable Routines
Planning Transitions
One Step at a Time: Making Skills Easier to Learn Through Task Analysis
Analyzing the Sequence
Training Each Step
Talking to Children Makes a Difference
Follow the Child's Lead
Use Progressive Matching
Use Labels and Specific Descriptors
Repeat Key Words and Phrases
Use Appropriate Pacing
Give Children Ample Time to Respond
Create the Need to Communicate
Using an Ounce of Prevention: Managing Behavior Problems
Generic Strategies to Head Off Behavior Problems
Generic Instructional Strategies for Children with Mild to Moderate Disabilities
Summary
Case Study: Helping Manuel Adjust
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Adaptations for Children with Specific Disabilities
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Children with Down Syndrome: A Common Example of Significant Cognitive Disabilities
Physical and Health Characteristics
Developmental Characteristics
Teaching Strategies
Children with Autism
Characteristics of Autism
Intervention/Treatment Approaches
Managing Behavior Challenges in Children with Autism
Teaching Strategies for Children with Autism
Children with Cerebral Palsy
Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Teaching Strategies for Children with Cerebral Palsy
Children with Visual Disabilities
Characteristics of Visual Disabilities
General Categories of Vision Disabilities
Strategies for Working with Children with Visual Impairments
Children with Hearing Loss
Understanding Different Types of Hearing Loss
Issues Related to Preferred Communication Modes: Signing versus Speech
Learning Styles and Characteristics of Children with Hearing Loss
Teaching Strategies for Children with Hearing Loss
High-Incidence Disabilities
Learning Disability
Speech and Language Disorder
Mild Cognitive Delay
Summary
Case Study: Ryan's Day at School
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Arranging the Physical Environment to Support the Inclusion of Children with Special Needs
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Creating a Safe Environment
Psychological Safety
Physical Safety
Encouraging Independent Access
Floor Plan Considerations for Children with Special Needs
Need for Quiet Area
Avoidance of Large Open Areas
Need for Acoustic Adaptations
Visually Simple Presentation of Materials to Reduce Clutter
Planning Activity Areas for Children with Special Needs
Library Corner
Art and Water Play Area
Tabletop Manipulatives Center
Building Area
Dramatic Play Area
Arranging Materials within Activity Areas
Visibility and Consistency
Accessibility
Labeling
Traffic Management
Noise Control
Lighting
Designing Specific Activity Centers
Reading/Preliteracy Areas
Sensory Experiences, Art, and Water Play Centers
Small Manipulative Activity Centers
Outdoor Play Areas
Summary
Case Study: Boundaries for Sung and Rafik
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
Preventing and Managing Challenging Behaviors
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
What Is a Challenging Behavior Anyway?
Behavior Challenges in Children with Special Needs
Neurological Disorders
Autism
Communication Disorders
Seizure Disorders
Causes/Functions of Inappropriate Behavior
Escape
Attention Seeking
Gaining Access
General Strategies for Preventing and Reducing the Occurrence of Problem Behaviors
Keep the Number of Rules Small
Select Rules Carefully
Be Clear and Consistent about Enforcement
Avoid Overstimulating, Disorganized Environments
Maintain a Predictable Daily Schedule
Carefully Plan Transitions
Give Attention Before Inappropriate Behavior Occurs
Use Touch to De-Escalate Behavior
Behavior Modification and the Use of Reinforcement Techniques
Identifying a Reinforcer
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
Use of Extinction
Problems with the Use of Punishment
Assigning a One-to-One Aide
A Word of Caution on the Use of One-to-One Aides
Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans
Understanding Problem Behaviors as Communication
Summary
Case Study: Roberto's Behavior Intervention Plan
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Monitoring Individual Child Progress
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
The Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Family Concerns
Outcome Statements
The Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Identifying Person(s) Responsible for Achievement of Goals
Goals and Objectives
Daily Instructional Objectives
Planning Inclusion Support and Monitoring Progress
Defining the Purpose of Inclusion Support
Rationale for Progress Monitoring
Types of Data Recording
Issues Related to Resources for Progress Monitoring
Summary
Case Study: Lazaro's Potty Training
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Adapting Daily Activities in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings
Managing Arrival, Departure, and Other Transitions
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Arrival
Arrival Challenges
Learning Opportunities During Arrival
Useful Strategies During Arrival Time
Planning Effective Departures
Establishing a Consistent Departure Routine
Don't Rush
Support Development of Time Concepts
Planning Other Transitions
Challenges Posed By Transitions
Successful Transition Strategies
Summary
Case Study: Marta's Dessert
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
Engaging Children with Special Needs in Free Play
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Possible Challenges of Free Play for Children with Special Needs
Special Opportunities to Assist Learning in Free Play
An Opportunity for Self-Initiated Exploration
Teaching the Child How to Play with Toys
Opportunities for One-on-One Interaction
Building Language Skills During Free Play
Demonstrating Interaction and Teaching Strategies to Parents
Encouraging Children to Play with Peers
Helping to Develop Crowd Tolerance
Selecting Toys and Materials for Free Play
Toys That Appeal to Different Developmental Levels
Considerations for Developmentally Young Children
Common Toy and Activity Categories
Summary
Case Study: Shopping Mini-Script for Raul
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
Circle Time
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Opportunities and Strategies in Circle Time
Learning Opportunities during Circle Time
Strategies to Make the Most of Circle Time
Variable Features
Best Circle Time Activities
Circle Time Prototype
Transition Signal
Arrange Seating
Opening Welcome
Roll Call
Songs
Calendar
Group Activity
Introduction of Next Activity
End of Circle Time Song or Action
Transition
Examples of Detailed Activity Plans
Toddler Circle Time Activity: What's in the Box
Toddler Circle Time Activity: Parachute Play
Preschool Circle Time Activity: Follow the Leader
Summary
Case Study: Amy and Bartholomew
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Tabletop and Art Activities
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Value of Tabletop and Art Activities
Fine Motor Skills for School Readiness
Task Sequencing
Demonstrating Cause and Effect
Learning Key Vocabulary and Concepts
Development of Representational Skills
Planning Art Activities for Children with Special Needs
Providing a Clear Transition
Supporting Learning Objectives through Art Activities
Fine and Gross Motor Skills
Developing Cognitive Skills
Learning Key Vocabulary and Concepts
Development of Representational Skills
Strategies for Children with Tactile Defensiveness
Summary
Case Study: Marciana's Resistance
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Outside Play
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Opportunities for Learning in the Outdoor Environment
Change of Environment
Opportunities for Using Large Muscles
Developing Play Skills
Developing Social Skills
Opportunities for Sand and Water Play
Planning the Outdoor Environment
Start with a Survey
Selecting Materials for Outside Areas
Sample Outside Lesson Plan: Discovery Walk
Summary
Case Study: Creating Space for Leila
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
Snack Time
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Learning Opportunities at Snack and Mealtimes
Self-Feeding Skills
Teaching Other Self-Help Skills at Snack
Developing Social Skills at Snack
Developing Communication Skills
Demonstrating Mealtime Techniques
Special Nutritional Considerations
Children with Cerebral Palsy
Children with Epilepsy (Seizure Disorders)
Children with Low Muscle Tone
Children with Autism
Prader-Willi Syndrome
Pica
Tube Feeding
A Word About Toileting
Summary
Case Study: Aaron's Fruit Loops
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Music and Rhythm Activities
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Benefits for Children with Special Needs
Something for Everyone
Building and Holding Interest
Music as a Motivator
Creating a Sense of Community
Encouraging Communication
Enhancing Physical Awareness
Making the Most of Music
Using Music to Build Language Skills
Choose Simple Songs
Teach or Reinforce Concepts
Summary
Case Study: Debbie's Switch
Case Study Questions
Helpful Resources
Supporting Emergent Literacy in Children with Special Needs
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Opportunities to Support Literacy
Environmental Print
Functional Print
Play Activities
Literacy Activities throughout the Daily Schedule
Assisting Children with Special Needs by Using Pictures and Print
Pictures and Print as Alternative Means of Expressive Language
Using Pictures to Assist Comprehension and Memory
Summary
Case Study: Dahlia's Favorite Book
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Working with the Early Childhood Special Education Team
Communicating with Families
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Guidelines for Developing Parent-Professional Partnerships
Development of Trust
Recognizing Parents' Knowledge and Expertise
Parents Are the Constants in Their Children's Lives
Making the Program Fit the Family's Priorities
Recognizing the Stresses Families Face
Understanding Families' Emotional Reactions
Strategies for Dealing with Families' Emotional Reactions
Communication: The Key to Building Parternships
Providing Information
Developing Effective Communication Skills
Summary
Case Study: Alfredo's Mother
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Collaborating with Disability Specialists and Paraprofessionals
Chapter-at-a-Glance
Introduction
Early Childhood Special Educator
Role of the Early Childhood Special Educator
Speech-Language Specialist
Role of the Speech-Language Specialist
Physical Therapist (PT)
Role of the Physical Therapist
Occupational Therapist (OT)
Role of the Occupational Therapist
Visual Impairment (VI) Specialist
Role of the Vision Specialist
Orientation and Mobility Specialists
Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) Specialist
Role of the DHH Specialist
Behavior Specialist
Role of the Behavior Specialist
Obtaining and Using Inclusion Support
Working Effectively with Paraeducators
Early Educators as Program Managers
Early Educators as Coaches
Early Educators as Communicators
Early Educators, Paraeducators, and Disability Specialists as a Collaborative Team
Collaborative Problem Solving
Summary
Case Study: Mark's Story
Case Study Questions
Key Terms
Helpful Resources
References
Blank Recording Forms
Detailed Descriptions of Three Tabletop Activities
Glossary
Index

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