Diseases and Human Evolution

ISBN-10: 0826330665

ISBN-13: 9780826330666

Edition: 2006

Authors: Ethne Barnes
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Description: Recent interest in new diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and Ebola, and the resurgence of older diseases like tuberculosis has fostered questions about the history of human infectious diseases. How did they evolve? Where did they originate? What natural factors have stalled the progression of diseases or made them possible? How does a microorganism become a pathogen? How have infectious diseases changed through time? What can we do to control their occurrence? Ethne Barnes offers answers to these questions, using information from history and medicine as well as from anthropology. She focuses on changes in the patterns of human behavior through cultural evolution and how they have affected the development of human diseases. Writing in a clear, lively style, Barnes offers general overviews of every variety of disease and their carriers, from insects and worms through rodent vectors to household pets and farm animals. She devotes whole chapters to major infectious diseases such as leprosy, syphilis, smallpox, and influenza. Other chapters concentrate on categories of diseases ("gut bugs," for example, including cholera, typhus, and salmonella). The final chapters cover diseases that have made headlines in recent years, among them mad cow disease, West Nile virus, and Lyme disease. In the tradition of Berton Rouech, Hans Zinsser, and Sherwin Nuland, Ethne Barnes answers questions you never knew you had about the germs that have threatened us throughout human history.

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Book details

List price: $29.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press
Publication date: 2/16/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 496
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Ethne Barnes is research consultant in physical anthropology/paleopathology with the Corinth excavations of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece. She serves in the same capacity for the INAH La Playa burial excavations in Northwest Mexico.

Preface
Introduction
The Meaning of Disease
Approaches to Understanding Disease
Coming Together
Germs, Genes, Geography, and Human Behavior
Concluding Comments
The War between Microbes and Men
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
The War Zone
Immunity throughout the Life Cycle
Concluding Comments
Early Humans and Their Diseases
Wanderlust
Evolutionary Hitchhikers
Herpes
Roving Parasites and Opportunistic Microbes
Insect Carriers of Disease
Hitchhiking Insects
Ingestion of Parasites
Trichinosis
Tapeworms (Cestodes)
Noninfectious Disease and Dental Disease
Paleolithic Times
Concluding Comments
The Seeds of Change
Prologue
The Best of Times
Changing Times
Changes in Disease Patterns
Rodent-borne Diseases
Insect-borne Diseases
Togetherness in a Crowded Village
Intestinal Roundworms (Nematodes)
Hookworms
Noninfectious Disease and Dental Disease
Concluding Comments
Mosquitoes, Malaria, and Gene Wars
Shifting Paradigms
The Vectors of Malaria
Evolution of Malaria
The Lives of the Plasmodia Parasites of Malaria
The Disease Complex
Endemic versus Epidemic Malaria
Surviving the New Order through Genetics
Concluding Comments
Invitation to a Minute Worm: The Schistosomes
Background Check
The Onerous Guest
The African Invitation
The Asian Invitation
Concluding Comments
Braving New Worlds: Invisible Enemies of Settlers
Paradise Found and Lost
Avoiding Africa's Fly Belts and the Sleeping Sickness
Making Room for Chagas' Disease in the New World
Leishmaniases: Old and New World
Flying Worms (Filariae)
Concluding Comments
Domesticated Animals and Disease
Man's Best Friend
Dogs and Rabies
Cat Fanciers
Cats and Toxoplasmosis
Taking Stock
Goats and Brucellosis
Bringing the Cows Home, and Anthrax
No News Is Good News in the New World
Concluding Comments
Cows, Mycobacteria, and Tuberculosis
Mycobacteria
Cows and the Mycobacteria of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis: The Human Disease
Disease from Environmental Mycobacteria
The Ancient Trail of Tuberculosis
Concluding Comments
The Moral Disease: Leprosy
What Makes a Leper?
The Culprit of Leprosy
Different Sores for Different Folks
The History of Leprosy
Concluding Comments
The Coming of Civilization
The Lands of Plenty
Opportunity Knocks
Evolution of Childhood Diseases
Concluding Comments
Syphilis: The Great Change Artist
The Agent
The Many Faces of Syphilis
The Yaws Version
The Pinta Version
Nonvenereal Syphilis
Venereal Syphilis
Different Scenes, Different Patterns of Sores
Congenital Syphilis
Changeovers
The Great Historical Pretense and the Facts
Concluding Comments
Memories of Smallpox
The Virus
The Disease
The Trail of Smallpox
Desperate Measures
Cowpox
The Hybrid Virus
Concluding Comments
Pestilence, Plague, and Rats
Rats Take Over the World
Rat Fleas and Yersinia pestis
The Disease
Origin and Spread: The Great Rat Migrations
Concluding Comments
Of Lice and Men: Plus Ticks, Mites, and Chiggers
Lice and Men at War
Wild Flea-borne Typhus
Human (Louse-borne) Typhus
Brill-Zinsser Disease
History of Typhus
Trench Fever
Ticks, Mites, Chiggers, and Spotted Fevers
Concluding Comments
Marching to a New World Order: European Expansion and the Industrial Revolution
Medieval Prologue
The Great Paradigm Shift
The Great Leap Forward
Concluding Comments
Easy Route to Fame and Gripe: Cholera, the Salmonella Gang, and Other Prominent Gut Bugs
The Story of Cholera
The Salmonella Gang
Other Prominent Gut Bugs
Concluding Comments
Transoceanic Hitchhikers: Yellow Fever and Its Dengue Cousin
Yellow Fever
The Yellow Fever Viral Impact on the Human Host
Yellow Fever Epilogue
Dengue Fever
Primary Infection of Dengue Fever
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Concluding Comments
Food for Thought: The Mystery Diseases
Food Choices and Availability
The Mystery Diseases: For Lack of Certain Nutrients
The Land of All You Can Eat
Concluding Comments
The Globalization of Influenza
What Is Influenza?
The Agents of Infection
Shifting Subtypes and Drifting New Lineages
The 1918 Influenza Pandemic
Early History of Influenza
Post-1918 Influenza
The 1976 Swine Flu Fiasco
The 1997 Bird Flu Scare
Concluding Comments
Diseases of Modern Civilization
On the Road to Affluence
Operation "Clean Sweep"
Epidemic Poliomyelitis
Meningococcal Meningitis
The Hepatitis World
Obstreperous Strep and the Staph of Life
Opportunistic Legionnaire's Disease
Lyme Disease
The Mystery of Chronic Diseases
Cancer Wars
Concluding Comments
The New Viral Wars and Sleeping Dragons
The HIV/AIDS Pandemic
Hemorrhagic Fevers
Viral Encephalitis
Concluding Comments
Back to the Future
SARS: The Warning Shot Heard around the World
Pollution's Progress
A Word about Fungus
Germs and Chemicals Designed for War
Mad Cows, Designer Pigs, and Fancy Plants
The Greatest Danger: A Crowded World
Out of Order
Concluding Comments: Ignorance Is Not Bliss
Works Cited
Index
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