The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757

ISBN-10: 082483643X

ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Edition: 2013

Authors: Gang Zhao
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Description: Did China drive or resist the early wave of globalization? Some scholars insist that China contributed nothing to the rise of the global economy that began around 1500. Others have placed China at the center of global integration. Neither side, though, has paid attention to the complex story of China's maritime policies. Drawing on sources from China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and the West, this important new work systematically explores the evolution of imperial Qing maritime policy from 1684 to 1757 and sets its findings in the context of early globalization.Gang Zhao argues that rather than constrain private maritime trade, globalization drove it forward, linking the Song and Yuan dynasties to a dynamic world system. As bold Chinese merchants began to dominate East Asian trade, officials and emperors came to see private trade as the solution to the daunting economic and social challenges of the day. The ascent of maritime business convinced the Kangzi emperor to open the coast to international trade, putting an end to the tribute trade system. Zhao's study details China's unique contribution to early globalization, the pattern of which differs significantly from the European experience. It offers impressive insights into the rise of the Asian trade network, the emergence of Shanghai as Asia's commercial hub, and the spread of a regional Chinese diaspora. To understand the place of China in the early modern world, how modernity came to China, and early globalization and the rise of the Asian trade network, The Qing Opening to the Ocean is essential reading.

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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Univ of Hawaii Pr
Binding: Cloth Text 
Pages: 312
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Acknowledgments
Introduction
Chinese Private Maritime Trade and Global Integration
Reconsidering Overseas Trade: The Chinese Intellectual Response to the Emerging Global Economy
The Northeast Asian Trade Network, the Manchu Procommerce Tradition, and the 1684 Open-Door Trade Policy
Enriching the State by Cherishing Private Trade: The Kangxi Emperor and the 1684 Open Trade Policy
Separating Trade from Tribute: Kangxi Ends the Tribute Trade System
The Establishment of the Qing Maritime Customs System and the Growth of Private Trade
Economic Interests, Security Concerns, and the Tribute System: Kangxi's Response to Tokugawa Japans Licensing System
The Kangxi Emperor Bans Trade with Southeast Asia
Western Merchants, Local Interests, and Christian Penetration: A New Interpretation of the Canton System
Conclusion
Notes
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
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