Power System State Estimation Theory and Implementation

ISBN-10: 0824755707

ISBN-13: 9780824755706

Edition: 2004

Authors: Ali Abur
List price: $132.95
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Description: Offering an up-to-date account of the strategies utilized in state estimation of electric power systems, this reference illustrates the significant role of state estimation in overall energy management.

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Book details

List price: $132.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 3/24/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 327
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Foreword
Preface
Introduction
Operating States of a Power System
Power System Security Analysis
State Estimation
Summary
Weighted Least Squares State Estimation
Introduction
Component Modeling and Assumptions
Transmission Lines
Shunt Capacitors or Reactors
Tap Changing and Phase Shifting Transformers
Loads and Generators
Building the Network Model
Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Gaussian (Normal) Probability Density Function
The Likelihood Function
Measurement Model and Assumptions
WLS State Estimation Algorithm
The Measurement Function, h(x[superscript k])
The Measurement Jacobian, H
The Gain Matrix, G
Cholesky Decomposition of G
Performing the Forward/Back Substitutions
Decoupled Formulation of the WLS State Estimation
DC State Estimation Model
Problems
References
Alternative Formulations of the WLS State Estimation
Weaknesses of the Normal Equations Formulation
Orthogonal Factorization
Hybrid Method
Method of Peters and Wilkinson
Equality-Constrained WLS State Estimation
Augmented Matrix Approach
Blocked Formulation
Comparison of Techniques
Problems
References
Network Observability Analysis
Networks and Graphs
Graphs
Networks
Network Matrices
Branch to Bus Incidence Matrix
Fundamental Loop to Branch Incidence Matrix
Loop Equations
Methods of Observability Analysis
Numerical Method Based on the Branch Variable Formulation
New Branch Variables
Measurement Equations
Linearized Measurement Model
Observability Analysis
Numerical Method Based on the Nodal Variable Formulation
Determining the Unobservable Branches
Identification of Observable Islands
Measurement Placement to Restore Observability
Topological Observability Analysis Method
Topological Observability Algorithm
Identifying the Observable Islands
Determination of Critical Measurements
Measurement Design
Summary
Problems
References
Bad Data Detection and Identification
Properties of Measurement Residuals
Classification of Measurements
Bad Data Detection and Identifiability
Bad Data Detection
Chi-squares x[superscript 2] Distribution
Use of x[superscript 2] Distribution for Bad Data Detection
x[superscript 2]-Test for Detecting Bad Data in WLS State Estimation
Use of Normalized Residuals for Bad Data Detection
Properties of Normalized Residuals
Bad Data Identification
Largest Normalized Residual (r[superscript N subscript max]) Test
Computational Issues
Strengths and Limitations of the r[superscript N subscript max] Test
Hypothesis Testing Identification (HTI)
Statistical Properties of e[subscript s]
Hypothesis Testing
Decision Rules
HTI Strategy Under Fixed [beta]
Summary
Problems
References
Robust State Estimation
Introduction
Robustness and Breakdown Points
Outliers and Leverage Points
Concept of Leverage Points
Identification of Leverage Measurements
M-Estimators
Estimation by Newton's Method
Iteratively Re-weighted Least Squares Estimation
Least Absolute Value (LAV) Estimation
Linear Regression
LAV Estimation as an LP Problem
Simplex Based Algorithm
Interior Point Algorithm
Discussion
Problems
References
Network Parameter Estimation
Introduction
Influence of Parameter Errors on State Estimation Results
Identification of Suspicious Parameters
Classification of Parameter Estimation Methods
Parameter Estimation Based on Residual Sensitivity Analysis
Parameter Estimation Based on State Vector Augmentation
Solution Using Conventional Normal Equations
Solution Based on Kalman Filter Theory
Parameter Estimation Based on Historical Series of Data
Transformer Tap Estimation
Observability of Network Parameters
Discussion
Problems
References
Topology Error Processing
Introduction
Types of Topology Errors
Detection of Topology Errors
Classification of Methods for Topology Error Analysis
Preliminary Topology Validation
Branch Status Errors
Residual Analysis
State Vector Augmentation
Substation Configuration Errors
Inclusion of Circuit Breakers in the Network Model
WLAV Estimator
WLS Estimator
Substation Graph and Reduced Model
Implicit Substation Model: State and Status Estimation
Observability Analysis Revisited
Problems
References
State Estimation Using Ampere Measurements
Introduction
Modeling of Ampere Measurements
Difficulties in Using Ampere Measurements
Inequality-Constrained State Estimation
Heuristic Determination of P-[theta] Solution Uniqueness
Algorithmic Determination of Solution Uniqueness
Procedure Based on the Residual Covariance Matrix
Procedure Based on the Jacobian Matrix
Identification of Nonuniquely Observable Branches
Measurement Classification and Bad Data Identification
LS Estimation
LAV Estimation
Problems
References
Review of Basic Statistics
Random Variables
The Distribution Function (d.f.), F(x)
The Probability Density Function (p.d.f), f(x)
Continuous Joint Distributions
Independent Random Variables
Conditional Distributions
Expected Value
Variance
Median
Mean Squared Error
Mean Absolute Error
Covariance
Normal Distribution
Standard Normal Distribution
Properties of Normally Distributed Random Variables
Distribution of Sample Mean
Likelihood Function and Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Properties of MLE's
Central Limit Theorem for the Sample Mean
Review of Sparse Linear Equation Solution
Solution by Direct Methods
Elementary Matrices
LU Factorization Using Elementary Matrices
Crout's Algorithm
Doolittle's Algorithm
Factorization of Sparse Symmetric Matrices
Ordering Sparse Symmetric Matrices
Factorization Path Graph
Sparse Forward/Back Substitutions
Solution of Modified Equations
Partial Refactorization
Compensation
Sparse Inverse
Orthogonal Factorization
Storage and Retrieval of Sparse Matrix Elements
Inserting and/or Deleting Elements in a Linked List
Adding a Nonzero Element
Deleting a Nonzero Element
References
Index
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