Physics, the Human Adventure From Copernicus to Einstein and Beyond

ISBN-10: 0813529085
ISBN-13: 9780813529080
Edition: 3rd 2001
List price: $43.95 Buy it from $21.18
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Book details

List price: $43.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Publication date: 3/1/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 598
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

Born in Berlin, Germany, Gerald Holton received his Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1946. Shortly afterward, he launched into what has become a major part of his career---directing a well-known program that originally was developed to teach physical science to liberal arts majors at Harvard. This program, called Harvard Project Physics, became the model for an ambitious program to teach physics in a similar historical manner in colleges and high schools throughout the United States. Later, Holton used this model in a somewhat different manner, establishing a program for the public understanding of science that eventually grew into a journal, Science, Technology and Human Values. For many years, Holton was a coeditor of Daedalus, the journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has also gained recognition as a biographer of Albert Einstein, and he has worked tirelessly to demonstrate that science requires as much creative imagination as do the arts and humanities.

Preface
The Origins of Scientific Cosmology
The Astronomy of Ancient Greece
The Motions of Stars, Suns, and Planets
Plato's Problem
The Aristotelian System
How Big Is the Earth?
The Heliocentric Theory
Modified Geocentric Theories
The Success of the Ptolemaic System
Copernicus' Heliocentric Theory
Europe Reborn
The Copernican System
Bracing the System
The Opposition to Copernicus's Theory
Historic Consequences
On the Nature of Scientific Theory
The Purpose of Theories
The Problem of Change: Atomism
Theories of Vision
Criteria for a Good Theory in Physical Science
Kepler's Laws
The Life of Johannes Kepler
Kepler's First Law
Kepler's Second Law
Kepler's Third Law
Kepler's Theory of Vision
The New Concept of Physical Law
Galileo and the New Astronomy
The Life of Galileo
The Telescopic Evidences for the Copernican System
Toward a Physical Basis for the Heliocentric System
Science and Freedom
The Study of Motion
Mathematics and the Description of Motion
Rene Descartes
Constant Velocity
The Concept of Average Speed
Instantaneous Speed
Acceleration
Oresme's Graphical Proof of the Mean-speed Theorem
Equations of Motion for Constant Acceleration
Galileo and the Kinematics of Free Fall
Introduction
Aristotelian Physics
Galileo's Two New Sciences
Galileo's Study of Accelerated Motion
Projectile Motion
Projectile with Initial Horizontal Motion
Introduction to Vectors
The General Case of Projectile Motion
Applications of the Law of Projectile Motion
Galileo's Conclusions
Summary
Newton's Laws and His System of the World
Newton's Laws of Motion
Science in the Seventeenth Century
A Short Sketch of Newton's Life
Newton's Principia
Newton's First Law of Motion
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Standard of Mass
Weight
The Equal-Arm Balance
Inertial and Gravitational Mass
Examples and Applications of Newton's Second Law of Motion
Newton's Third Law of Motion
Examples and Applications of Newton's Third Law
Rotational Motion
Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
Centripetal Acceleration
Derivation of the Formula for Centripetal Acceleration and Force
The Earth's Centripetal Acceleration and Absolute Distances in the Solar System
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Derivation of the Law of Universal Gravitation
Gravitating Planets and Kepler's Third Law
The Cavendish Experiment: The Constant of Gravitation
The Masses of the Earth, Sun, and Planets
Some Influences on Newton's Work
Some Consequences of the Law of Universal Gravitation
The Discovery of New Planets Using Newton's Theory of Gravity
Bode's Law: An Apparent Regularity in the Positions of the Planets
Gravity and the Galaxies
"I Do Not Feign Hypotheses"
Newton's Place in Modern Science
Structure and Method in Physical Science
On the Nature of Concepts
Introduction: The Search for Constancies in Change
Science and Nonscience
The Lack of a Single Method
Physical Concepts: Measurement and Definition
Physically Meaningless Concepts and Statements
Primary and Secondary Qualities
Mathematical Law and Abstraction
Explanation
On the Duality and Growth of Science
The Free License of Creativity
"Private" Science and "Public" Science
The Natural Selection of Physical Concepts
Motivation
Objectivity
Fact and Interpretation
How Science Grows
Consequences of the Model
On the Discovery of Laws
Opinions on Scientific Procedure
A Sequence of Elements in Formulations of Laws
The Limitations of Physical Law
The Content of Science: Summary
The Laws of Conservation
The Law of Conservation of Mass
Prelude to the Conservation Law
Steps Toward a Formulation
Lavoisier's Experimental Proof
Is Mass Really Conserved?
The Law of Conservation of Momentum
Introduction
Definition of Momentum
Momentum and Newton's Laws of Motion
Examples Involving Collisions
Examples Involving Explosions
Further Examples
Does Light Have Momentum?
Angular Momentum
The Law of Conservation of Energy
Christiaan Huygens and the Kinetic Energy (Vis Viva) Concept
Preliminary Questions: The Pile Driver
The Concept of Work
Various Forms of Energy
The Conservation Law: First Form and Applications
Extensions of the Conservation Law
Historical Background of the Generalized Law of Conservation of Energy: The Nature of Heat
Mayer's Discovery of Energy Conservation
Joule's Experiments on Energy Conservation
General Illustration of the Law of Conservation of Energy
Conservation Laws and Symmetry
The Law of Dissipation of Energy
Newton's Rejection of the "Newtonian World Machine"
The Problem of the Cooling of the Earth
The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Dissipation of Energy
Entropy and the Heat Death
Origins of the Atomic Theory in Physics and Chemistry
The Physics of Gases
The Nature of Gases--Early Concepts
Air Pressure
The General Gas Law
Two Gas Models
The Atomic Theory of Chemistry
Chemical Elements and Atoms
Dalton's Model of Gases
Properties of Dalton's Chemical Atom
Dalton's Symbols for Representing Atoms
The Law of Definite Proportions
Dalton's Rule of Simplicity
The Early Achievements of Dalton's Theory
Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes of Reacting Gases
Avogadro's Model of Gases
An Evaluation of Avogadro's Theory
Chemistry After Avogadro: The Concept of Valence
Molecular Weights
The Periodic Table of Elements
The Search for Regularity in the List of Elements
The Early Periodic Table of Elements
Consequences of the Periodic Law
The Modern Periodic Table
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
Introduction
Some Qualitative Successes of the Kinetic- Molecular Theory
Model of a Gas and Assumptions in the Kinetic Theory
The Derivation of the Pressure Formula
Consequences and Verification of the Kinetic Theory
The Distribution of Molecular Velocities
Additional Results and Verifications of the Kinetic Theory
Specific Heats of Gases
The Problem of Irreversibility in the Kinetic Theory: Maxwell's Demon
The Recurrence Paradox
Light and Electromagnetism
The Wave Theory of Light
Theories of Refraction and the Speed of Light
The Propagation of Periodic Waves
The Wave Theory of Young and Fresnel
Color
Electrostatics
Introduction
Electrification by Friction
Law of Conservation of Charge
A Modern Model for Electrification
Insulators and Conductors
The Electroscope
Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics
The Electrostatic Field
Lines of Force
Electric Potential Difference--Qualitative Discussion
Potential Difference--Quantitative Discussion
Uses of the Concept of Potential
Electrochemistry
Atomicity of Charge
Electromagnetism, X-Rays, and Electrons
Introduction
Currents and Magnets
Electromagnetic Waves and Ether
Hertz's Experiments
Cathode Rays
X-rays and the Turn of the Century
The "Discovery of the Electron"
The Quantum Theory of Light
Continuous Emission Spectra
Planck's Empirical Emission Formula
The Quantum Hypothesis
The Photoelectric Effect
Einstein's Photon Theory
The Photon-Wave Dilemma
Applications of the Photon Concept
Quantization in Science
The Atom and the Universe in Modern Physics
Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom
Early Research on Radioactivity and Isotopes
Radioactive Half-Life
Radioactive Series
Rutherford's Nuclear Model
Moseley's X-Ray Spectra
Further Concepts of Nuclear Structure
Bohr's Model of the Atom
Line Emission Spectra
Absorption Line Spectra
Balmer's Formula
Niels Bohr and the Problem of Atomic Structure
Energy Levels in Hydrogen Atoms
Further Developments
Quantum Mechanics
Recasting the Foundations of Physics Once More
The Wave Nature of Matter
Knowledge and Reality in Quantum Mechanics
Systems of Identical Particles
Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Biographical Sketch of Albert Einstein
The FitzGerald-Lorentz Contraction
Einstein's Formulation (1905)
Galilean Transformation Equations
The Relativity of Simultaneity
The Relativistic (Lorentz) Transformation Equations
Consequences and Examples
The Equivalence of Mass and Energy
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
The General Theory of Relativity
The Origin of the Solar System and the Expanding Universe
The Nebular Hypothesis
Planetesimal and Tidal Theories
Revival of Monistic Theories After 1940
Nebulae and Galaxies
The Expanding Universe
Lemaitre's Primeval Atom
Construction of the Elements and the Universe
Nuclear Physics in the 1930s
Formation of the Elements in Stars
Fission and the Atomic Bomb
Big Bang or Steady State?
Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation
Beyond the Big Bang
Thematic Elements and Styles in Science
The Thematic Element in Science
Themata in the History of Science
Styles of Thought in Science and Culture
Epilogue
Appendixes
Abbreviations and Symbols
Metric System Prefixes, Greek Alphabet, Roman Numerals
Defined Values, Fundamental Constants and Astronomical Data
Conversion Factors
Systems of Units
Alphabetic List of the Elements
Periodic Table of Elements
Summary of Some Trigonometric Relations
Vector Algebra
General Bibliography
Credits
Index

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