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Preface | |

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The Origins of Scientific Cosmology | |

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The Astronomy of Ancient Greece | |

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The Motions of Stars, Suns, and Planets | |

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Plato's Problem | |

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The Aristotelian System | |

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How Big Is the Earth? | |

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The Heliocentric Theory | |

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Modified Geocentric Theories | |

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The Success of the Ptolemaic System | |

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Copernicus' Heliocentric Theory | |

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Europe Reborn | |

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The Copernican System | |

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Bracing the System | |

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The Opposition to Copernicus's Theory | |

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Historic Consequences | |

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On the Nature of Scientific Theory | |

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The Purpose of Theories | |

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The Problem of Change: Atomism | |

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Theories of Vision | |

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Criteria for a Good Theory in Physical Science | |

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Kepler's Laws | |

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The Life of Johannes Kepler | |

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Kepler's First Law | |

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Kepler's Second Law | |

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Kepler's Third Law | |

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Kepler's Theory of Vision | |

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The New Concept of Physical Law | |

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Galileo and the New Astronomy | |

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The Life of Galileo | |

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The Telescopic Evidences for the Copernican System | |

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Toward a Physical Basis for the Heliocentric System | |

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Science and Freedom | |

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The Study of Motion | |

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Mathematics and the Description of Motion | |

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Rene Descartes | |

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Constant Velocity | |

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The Concept of Average Speed | |

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Instantaneous Speed | |

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Acceleration | |

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Oresme's Graphical Proof of the Mean-speed Theorem | |

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Equations of Motion for Constant Acceleration | |

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Galileo and the Kinematics of Free Fall | |

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Introduction | |

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Aristotelian Physics | |

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Galileo's Two New Sciences | |

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Galileo's Study of Accelerated Motion | |

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Projectile Motion | |

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Projectile with Initial Horizontal Motion | |

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Introduction to Vectors | |

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The General Case of Projectile Motion | |

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Applications of the Law of Projectile Motion | |

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Galileo's Conclusions | |

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Summary | |

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Newton's Laws and His System of the World | |

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Newton's Laws of Motion | |

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Science in the Seventeenth Century | |

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A Short Sketch of Newton's Life | |

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Newton's Principia | |

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Newton's First Law of Motion | |

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Newton's Second Law of Motion | |

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Standard of Mass | |

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Weight | |

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The Equal-Arm Balance | |

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Inertial and Gravitational Mass | |

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Examples and Applications of Newton's Second Law of Motion | |

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Newton's Third Law of Motion | |

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Examples and Applications of Newton's Third Law | |

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Rotational Motion | |

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Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion | |

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Centripetal Acceleration | |

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Derivation of the Formula for Centripetal Acceleration and Force | |

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The Earth's Centripetal Acceleration and Absolute Distances in the Solar System | |

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Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | |

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Derivation of the Law of Universal Gravitation | |

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Gravitating Planets and Kepler's Third Law | |

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The Cavendish Experiment: The Constant of Gravitation | |

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The Masses of the Earth, Sun, and Planets | |

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Some Influences on Newton's Work | |

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Some Consequences of the Law of Universal Gravitation | |

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The Discovery of New Planets Using Newton's Theory of Gravity | |

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Bode's Law: An Apparent Regularity in the Positions of the Planets | |

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Gravity and the Galaxies | |

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"I Do Not Feign Hypotheses" | |

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Newton's Place in Modern Science | |

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Structure and Method in Physical Science | |

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On the Nature of Concepts | |

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Introduction: The Search for Constancies in Change | |

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Science and Nonscience | |

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The Lack of a Single Method | |

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Physical Concepts: Measurement and Definition | |

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Physically Meaningless Concepts and Statements | |

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Primary and Secondary Qualities | |

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Mathematical Law and Abstraction | |

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Explanation | |

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On the Duality and Growth of Science | |

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The Free License of Creativity | |

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"Private" Science and "Public" Science | |

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The Natural Selection of Physical Concepts | |

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Motivation | |

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Objectivity | |

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Fact and Interpretation | |

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How Science Grows | |

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Consequences of the Model | |

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On the Discovery of Laws | |

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Opinions on Scientific Procedure | |

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A Sequence of Elements in Formulations of Laws | |

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The Limitations of Physical Law | |

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The Content of Science: Summary | |

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The Laws of Conservation | |

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The Law of Conservation of Mass | |

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Prelude to the Conservation Law | |

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Steps Toward a Formulation | |

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Lavoisier's Experimental Proof | |

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Is Mass Really Conserved? | |

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The Law of Conservation of Momentum | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition of Momentum | |

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Momentum and Newton's Laws of Motion | |

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Examples Involving Collisions | |

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Examples Involving Explosions | |

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Further Examples | |

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Does Light Have Momentum? | |

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Angular Momentum | |

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The Law of Conservation of Energy | |

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Christiaan Huygens and the Kinetic Energy (Vis Viva) Concept | |

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Preliminary Questions: The Pile Driver | |

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The Concept of Work | |

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Various Forms of Energy | |

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The Conservation Law: First Form and Applications | |

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Extensions of the Conservation Law | |

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Historical Background of the Generalized Law of Conservation of Energy: The Nature of Heat | |

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Mayer's Discovery of Energy Conservation | |

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Joule's Experiments on Energy Conservation | |

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General Illustration of the Law of Conservation of Energy | |

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Conservation Laws and Symmetry | |

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The Law of Dissipation of Energy | |

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Newton's Rejection of the "Newtonian World Machine" | |

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The Problem of the Cooling of the Earth | |

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Dissipation of Energy | |

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Entropy and the Heat Death | |

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Origins of the Atomic Theory in Physics and Chemistry | |

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The Physics of Gases | |

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The Nature of Gases--Early Concepts | |

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Air Pressure | |

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The General Gas Law | |

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Two Gas Models | |

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The Atomic Theory of Chemistry | |

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Chemical Elements and Atoms | |

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Dalton's Model of Gases | |

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Properties of Dalton's Chemical Atom | |

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Dalton's Symbols for Representing Atoms | |

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The Law of Definite Proportions | |

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Dalton's Rule of Simplicity | |

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The Early Achievements of Dalton's Theory | |

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Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes of Reacting Gases | |

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Avogadro's Model of Gases | |

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An Evaluation of Avogadro's Theory | |

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Chemistry After Avogadro: The Concept of Valence | |

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Molecular Weights | |

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The Periodic Table of Elements | |

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The Search for Regularity in the List of Elements | |

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The Early Periodic Table of Elements | |

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Consequences of the Periodic Law | |

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The Modern Periodic Table | |

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The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases | |

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Introduction | |

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Some Qualitative Successes of the Kinetic- Molecular Theory | |

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Model of a Gas and Assumptions in the Kinetic Theory | |

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The Derivation of the Pressure Formula | |

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Consequences and Verification of the Kinetic Theory | |

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The Distribution of Molecular Velocities | |

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Additional Results and Verifications of the Kinetic Theory | |

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Specific Heats of Gases | |

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The Problem of Irreversibility in the Kinetic Theory: Maxwell's Demon | |

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The Recurrence Paradox | |

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Light and Electromagnetism | |

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The Wave Theory of Light | |

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Theories of Refraction and the Speed of Light | |

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The Propagation of Periodic Waves | |

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The Wave Theory of Young and Fresnel | |

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Color | |

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Electrostatics | |

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Introduction | |

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Electrification by Friction | |

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Law of Conservation of Charge | |

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A Modern Model for Electrification | |

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Insulators and Conductors | |

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The Electroscope | |

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Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics | |

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The Electrostatic Field | |

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Lines of Force | |

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Electric Potential Difference--Qualitative Discussion | |

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Potential Difference--Quantitative Discussion | |

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Uses of the Concept of Potential | |

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Electrochemistry | |

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Atomicity of Charge | |

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Electromagnetism, X-Rays, and Electrons | |

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Introduction | |

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Currents and Magnets | |

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Electromagnetic Waves and Ether | |

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Hertz's Experiments | |

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Cathode Rays | |

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X-rays and the Turn of the Century | |

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The "Discovery of the Electron" | |

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The Quantum Theory of Light | |

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Continuous Emission Spectra | |

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Planck's Empirical Emission Formula | |

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The Quantum Hypothesis | |

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The Photoelectric Effect | |

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Einstein's Photon Theory | |

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The Photon-Wave Dilemma | |

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Applications of the Photon Concept | |

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Quantization in Science | |

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The Atom and the Universe in Modern Physics | |

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Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom | |

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Early Research on Radioactivity and Isotopes | |

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Radioactive Half-Life | |

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Radioactive Series | |

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Rutherford's Nuclear Model | |

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Moseley's X-Ray Spectra | |

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Further Concepts of Nuclear Structure | |

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Bohr's Model of the Atom | |

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Line Emission Spectra | |

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Absorption Line Spectra | |

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Balmer's Formula | |

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Niels Bohr and the Problem of Atomic Structure | |

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Energy Levels in Hydrogen Atoms | |

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Further Developments | |

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Quantum Mechanics | |

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Recasting the Foundations of Physics Once More | |

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The Wave Nature of Matter | |

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Knowledge and Reality in Quantum Mechanics | |

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Systems of Identical Particles | |

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Einstein's Theory of Relativity | |

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Biographical Sketch of Albert Einstein | |

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The FitzGerald-Lorentz Contraction | |

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Einstein's Formulation (1905) | |

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Galilean Transformation Equations | |

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The Relativity of Simultaneity | |

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The Relativistic (Lorentz) Transformation Equations | |

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Consequences and Examples | |

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The Equivalence of Mass and Energy | |

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Relativistic Quantum Mechanics | |

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The General Theory of Relativity | |

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The Origin of the Solar System and the Expanding Universe | |

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The Nebular Hypothesis | |

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Planetesimal and Tidal Theories | |

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Revival of Monistic Theories After 1940 | |

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Nebulae and Galaxies | |

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The Expanding Universe | |

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Lemaitre's Primeval Atom | |

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Construction of the Elements and the Universe | |

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Nuclear Physics in the 1930s | |

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Formation of the Elements in Stars | |

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Fission and the Atomic Bomb | |

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Big Bang or Steady State? | |

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Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation | |

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Beyond the Big Bang | |

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Thematic Elements and Styles in Science | |

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The Thematic Element in Science | |

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Themata in the History of Science | |

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Styles of Thought in Science and Culture | |

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Epilogue | |

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Appendixes | |

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Abbreviations and Symbols | |

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Metric System Prefixes, Greek Alphabet, Roman Numerals | |

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Defined Values, Fundamental Constants and Astronomical Data | |

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Conversion Factors | |

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Systems of Units | |

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Alphabetic List of the Elements | |

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Periodic Table of Elements | |

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Summary of Some Trigonometric Relations | |

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Vector Algebra | |

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General Bibliography | |

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Credits | |

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Index | |