Race in North America Origins and Evolution of a Worldview

ISBN-10: 0813343577
ISBN-13: 9780813343570
Edition: 3rd 2007 (Revised)
Author(s): Audrey Smedley
Description: In a sweeping work that traces the idea of race for more than three centuries, Audrey Smedley shows that "race" is a cultural invention that has been used variously and opportunistically since the eighteenth century, and that race, in its origin,  More...
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List Price: $46.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright Year: 2007
Publisher: Westview Press
Publication Date: 1/2/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 5.75" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.100
Language: English

In a sweeping work that traces the idea of race for more than three centuries, Audrey Smedley shows that "race" is a cultural invention that has been used variously and opportunistically since the eighteenth century, and that race, in its origin, was not a product of science but of a folk ideology reflecting a new form of social stratification and a rationalization for inequality among the peoples of North America. This new edition looks more closely at the positions and arguments of contemporary race scientists who maintain that race is a valid biological concept and that there are significant differences among the races.

Preface to the Third Edition
Introduction
Notes
Some Theoretical Considerations
Race as a Modern Idea
Ideas, Ideologies, and Worldviews
The Social Reality of Race in America
The Relationship Between Biology and Race
The Primordialists' Argument
Race as a Worldview: A Theoretical Perspective
Race and Ethnicity: Biology and Culture
Notes
The Etymology of the Term "Race" in the English Language
Note
Antecedents of the Racial Worldview
The Age of European Exploration
The Rise of Capitalism and Transformation of English Society
Social Organization and Values of Early Capitalism
English Ethnocentrism and the Idea of the Savage
English Nationalism and Social Values in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Hereditary Social Identity: The Example of Catholic Spain
Notes
Growth of the English Ideology About Human Differences in America
Earliest Contacts
The Ensuing Conflicts
The Backing of God and Other Justifications for Conquest
The New Savages
Notes
The Arrival of Africans and Descent into Slavery
The First Africans
The Descent into Permanent Slavery
Was There "Race" Before Slavery?
Why the Preference for Africans?
The Problem of Labor
A Focus on Physical Differences and the Invention of Social Meanings
Notes
Comparing Slave Systems: The Significance of "Racial" Servitude
The Background Literature and the Issues of Slavery
The Nature of Slavery
A Brief History of Old World Slavery
Colonial Slavery Under the Spanish and Portuguese
Uniqueness of the English Experience of Slavery
The Significance of Slavery in the Creation of Race Ideology
Notes
The Rise of Science: Early Attempts to Classify Human Populations
Questions, Issues, and Answers
Early Classifications of Humankind
The Impact of Eighteenth-Century Classifications
Notes
Late Eighteenth-Century Thought and the Crystallization of the Ideology of Race
Social Values of the American Colonists
Nature's Hierarchy
Dominant Themes in North American Racial Beliefs
Anglo-Saxonism: The Making of a Biological Myth
Thomas Jefferson and the American Dilemma
Notes
Antislavery and the Entrenchment of a Racial Worldview
A Brief History of Antislavery Thought
The Proslavery Response
Sociocultural Realities of Race and Slavery
The Priority of Race over Class
Notes
A Different Order of Being: Nineteenth-Century Science and the Ideology of Race
Polygeny Versus Monogeny: The Debate over Race and Species
The Unnatural Mixture
Scientific Race Ideology in the Judicial System
White Supremacy
Notes
Science and the Growth and Expansion of Race Ideology
The Power of Polygenist Thinking
European Contributions to the ideology of Race
The Measurement of Human Differences: Anthropometry
Typological Models of Races
The Dawn of Psychometrics
Immigrants and the Extension of the Race Hierarchy
Overseas Expansion of Race Ideology
Notes
Twentieth-Century Developments in Race Ideology
Social Realities of the Racial Worldview
Psychometrics: The Measuring of Human Worth by IQ
The Eugenics Movement
The Racial World of the Nazis
The Continuing Influence of Racial Attitudes in Science
Notes
Changing Perspectives on Human Variation in Science
Decline of the Idea of Race in Science: Early Views
Early Physical Anthropology and Attempts to Transform the Meaning of Race
The Development of Population Genetics
The Scientific Debate over Race
The Ecological Perspective: Human Variations as Products of Adaptation
The Genetic Conception of Human Variation
Monogeny Reconsidered
Notes
Dismantling the Folk Idea of Race: Transformations of an Ideology
The Meaning and Legacy of Race as Identity
The Future of the Racial Worldview
The Persistence of Racial Thinking
Notes
References
Index

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