Farmers and Fishermen Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630-1850

ISBN-10: 0807844586
ISBN-13: 9780807844588
Edition: 1994
Authors: Daniel Vickers
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Description: Daniel Vickers examines the shifting labor strategies used by colonists as New England evolved from a string of frontier settlements to a mature society on the brink of industrialization. Lacking a means to purchase slaves or hire help,  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 1994
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Publication date: 11/18/1994
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 372
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Daniel Vickers examines the shifting labor strategies used by colonists as New England evolved from a string of frontier settlements to a mature society on the brink of industrialization. Lacking a means to purchase slaves or hire help, seventeenth-century settlers adapted the labor systems of Europe to cope with the shortages of capital and workers they encountered on the edge of the wilderness. As their world developed, changes in labor arrangements paved the way for the economic transformations of the nineteenth century. By reconstructing the work experiences of thousands of farmers and fishermen in eastern Massachusetts, Vickers identifies who worked for whom and under what terms. Seventeenth-century farmers, for example, maintained patriarchal control over their sons largely to assure themselves of a labor force. The first generation of fish merchants relied on a system of clientage that bound poor fishermen to deliver their hauls in exchange for goods. Toward the end of the colonial period, land scarcity forced farmers and fishermen to search for ways to support themselves through wage employment and home manufacture. Out of these adjustments, says Vickers, emerged a labor market sufficient for industrialization.

Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Illustrations and Tables
Short Titles and Abbreviations
Introduction
Improving the Lord's Garden
Competency
Commerce
Contradiction
Farmers, 1630-1700
The Rural Economy of England
Settlement
Laborers, Servants, and Exchanging Works
Fathers and Sons
Tenancy
Fishermen, 1630-1675
The Rise of the North Atlantic Fisheries
Launching the Fishery in New England
Merchant Patrons
Fishing Clients
Work
Society
Fishermen, 1675-1775
Shallops to Schooners
Clientage to Free Labor
Seaport Fishermen in Marblehead and Salem
Cottage Fishermen on Cape Ann
Farmers, 1700-1775
Markets and Production
Fathers and Sons
Servants and Slaves
Free Labor and Exchanging Works
By-employments
Fishermen, Farmers, and Manufactures, 1775-1850
Fishing
Farming
Manufacture
Conclusion
Appendixes
Index

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