Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America

ISBN-10: 0807841544
ISBN-13: 9780807841549
Edition: 1986
List price: $35.00 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: Before social unrest shook the region in the 1970s, Central America experienced more than a decade of rapid export growth by adding cotton and beef to the traditional coffee and bananas. Williams shows how the rapid growth contributed to the present  More...

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Book details

List price: $35.00
Copyright year: 1986
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Publication date: 5/30/1986
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 273
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.880
Language: English

Before social unrest shook the region in the 1970s, Central America experienced more than a decade of rapid export growth by adding cotton and beef to the traditional coffee and bananas. Williams shows how the rapid growth contributed to the present social and political crisis, examines the causes of the export boom and who benefited from it, and shows the impact of the boom on land use, the ecology, and the conditions of life in the rural areas.

Robert G. Williams, Voehringer Professor of Economics at Guilford College, is author of Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America.

Acknowledgments
List of Abbreviations
Introduction
Cotton
The Cotton Boom and Its Primary Causes
Demand for Cotton by Central American Manufacturing
World Demand for Cotton after World War II
The Insecticide Revolution
Chemical Fertilizers
Tractors
Modern Technology and Cotton Yields
Government Road-building Programs
Cotton and Credit
Government Promotion of Cotton Finance
Summary
The Cotton Boom and Its Primary Beneficiaries
The Cotton Growers
The Cotton Landlords
Cotton Gins
The Cotton-Export Houses
The Suppliers of the Cotton Boom
Banks and the Cotton Boom
Vegetable-Oil Factories and Textile Mills
Cotton and the Cotton Elite
Ecological Consequences of Cotton
Summary
Cotton and the Common Man
The Cotton Boom and the Opening of Fresh Cropland
Cornfields to Cotton
Cotton and Peasant Access to Land
Cotton and the Creation of a Wage-Labor Force
The Irreversibility of Cotton
Cotton to Cattle
Cotton to Sugar
Cotton to Basic Grains
Cotton and the Social Fabric
Summary
Cattle
The Beef-Export Boom and Its Primary Causes
Practices before the Export Boom
The Demand for Beef in the U.S. Market
The Vital Supply Link: The Modern Packing Plant
Refrigerator Transport
Roads and the Beef Trade
State Promotion of the Beef Business
Road Finance
Direct Promotional Finance to the Beef Sector
The Beef-Export Boom and Technology on the Ranch
Summary
The Beneficiaries of Beef
The Source of the Beef Bonanza
The Packing Plants' Share of the Beef Bonanza
The Impact of the Boom on Slaughter Sheds, Vendors, and Consumers
Private Investment in Cattle Raising
The Collapse of the Small Holder
Profits from the Sale of Modern Inputs
Vertical Integration in the Beef-Export Business
Summary
Cattle and the Campesino
Forest to Pasture
Forest to Corn to Pasture
Ecological Consequences of Forest-to-Pasture Transformation
Impact of Forest-to-Pasture Transformation on Peasants
The Cattle Boom and Rights to Land Use
The Cattle Boom and Rural Conflict: The Pacific Coastal Plain of Honduras and Costa Rica
Olancho, Honduras: The Cattle Boom, the Peasant Movement, and Rancher Violence
The Cattle Boom, Rural Guerrillas, and Counterinsurgency in Nicaragua (1967-1972)
The First Phase of the Guatemalan Cattle Boom (1960s)
The Second Phase of the Guatemalan Cattle Boom (1970s)
The Cattle Boom and the Repression of Cooperatives in Quiche and Huehuetenango (mid-1970s)
The Cattle Boom, the Massacre at Panzos, and the Guatemalan Civil War
Summary
The Crisis
Cotton, Cattle, and the Crisis
Cotton and the Buildup to Crisis
Cattle and the Buildup to Crisis
U.S. Policy and the Buildup to Crisis
World-System Shocks: Impact on Elites
World-System Shocks: Impact on the Poor
Summary
Governments and the Crisis
The Unfolding of the Crisis in Nicaragua
The Unfolding of the Crisis in El Salvador
The Unfolding of the Crisis in Guatemala
Reform and Repression in Honduras: Responses to Shocks
Government Responses to the Crisis in Costa Rica
Summary
Challenge for a New U.S. Policy
Statistical Appendix
Notes
Bibliography
Index

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