Essential IGenetics

ISBN-10: 080534697X
ISBN-13: 9780805346978
Edition: 2003
Authors: Peter J. Russell
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Description: Building on the proven strengths of Russell's step-by-step problem-solving approach, Essential iGenetics blends a classic, Mendel-first approach with modern molecular coverage. This easy to read introduction to genetics presents full coverage of the  More...

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Book details

List price: $172.80
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company
Publication date: 11/6/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 600
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Building on the proven strengths of Russell's step-by-step problem-solving approach, Essential iGenetics blends a classic, Mendel-first approach with modern molecular coverage. This easy to read introduction to genetics presents full coverage of the subject in a brief and manageable format. The text covers basic genetics principles, with balanced coverage of Mendel, historical experiments, and cutting-edge chapters on Genome Analysis and Molecular Evolution. Students develop and apply critical thinking skills as they work step-by-step through a number of solved genetics problems. Students can also apply the principles and techniques learned to a variety of problems at the end of each chapter.

Peter J. Russell received his B.Sc. in Biology from the University of Sussex, U.K., in 1968 and his Ph.D. in Genetics from Cornell University in 1972. He then joined the Biology faculty of Reed College in 1972 where he is currently Professor of Biology. Russell teaches an upper-division genetics and molecular biology lecture/laboratory course, the genetics section of the introductory biology course, an advanced seminar course in molecular virology, and advises senior thesis research students. He is also the author of a number of successful biology and genetics textbooks, including iGenetics: A Molecular Approach.He is currently studying the molecular genetics of gene expression of a plant pathogenic RNA virus, using the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as the model host. The research goals are to define the genes of the host that encode products required for the expression of a specific gene involved in aphid transmission of the virus. His earlier research involved studies of ribosome biosynthesis and the organization of and regulation of the number of ribosomal RNA genes in Neurospora.

Preface
Genetics: An Introduction
Classic and Modern Genetics
Basic Concepts of Genetics
DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes
Transmission of Genetic Information
Expression of Genetic Information
Sources of Genetic Variation
Geneticists and Genetic Research
The Subdisciplines of Genetics
Basic and Applied Research
Genetic Databases and Maps
Model Organisms
Cellular Reproduction
Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Mitosis
Meiosis
Summary
Questions and Problems
Mendelian Genetics
Genotype and Phenotype
Mendel's Experimental Design
Monohybrid Crosses and Mendel's Principle of Segregation
The Principle of Segregation
Representing Crosses with a Branch Diagram
Confirming the Principle of Segregation: The Use of Testcrosses
Dihybrid Crosses and Mendel's Principle of Independent Assortment
The Principle of Independent Assortment
Branch Diagram of Dihybrid Crosses
Trihybrid Crosses
The "Rediscovery" of Mendel's Principles
Statistical Analysis of Genetic Data: The Chi-Square Test
Mendelian Genetics in Humans
Pedigree Analysis
Examples of Human Genetic Traits
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance, Sex Linkage, and Sex Determination
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
Sex Chromosomes
Sex Linkage
Nondisjunction of X Chromosomes
Sex Determination
Genotypic Sex Determination Systems
Environmental Sex Determination Systems
Analysis of Sex-Linked Traits in Humans
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
X-Linked Dominant Inheritance
Y-Linked Inheritance
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Extensions of Mendelian Genetic Analysis
Multiple Alleles
ABO Blood Groups
Drosophila Eye Color
Modifications of Dominant Relationships
Incomplete Dominance
Codominance
Molecular Explanations of Incomplete Dominance and Codominance
Gene Interactions and Modified Mendelian Ratios
Gene Interactions That Produce New Phenotypes
Epistasis
Essential Genes and Lethal Alleles
Gene Expression and the Environment
Penetrance and Expressivity
Effects of the Environment
Nature Versus Nurture
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Gene Mapping in Eukaryotes
Discovery of Genetic Linkage
Morgan's Linkage Experiments with Drosophila
Constructing Genetic Maps
Detecting Linkage Through Testcrosses
Gene Mapping Using Two-Point Testcrosses
Generating a Genetic Map
Gene Mapping Using Three-Point Testcrosses
Calculating Accurate Map Distances
Tetrad Analysis in Certain Haploid Eukaryotes
Using Tetrad Analysis to Map Two Linked Genes
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Gene Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
Genetic Analysis of Bacteria
Genetic Mapping in Bacteria by Conjugation
Discovery of Conjugation in E. coli
The Sex Factor F
High-Frequency Recombination Strains of E. coli
F' Factors
Using Conjugation to Map Bacterial Genes
Circularity of the E. coli Map
Genetic Mapping in Bacteria by Transformation
Genetic Mapping in Bacteria by Transduction
Bacteriophages
Transduction Mapping of Bacterial Chromosomes
Mapping Genes of Bacteriophages
Fine-Structure Analysis of a Bacteriophage Gene
Recombination Analysis of rII Mutants
Defining Genes by Complementation (Cis-Trans) Tests
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Non-Mendelian Genetics
Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Rules of Non-Mendelian Inheritance
Examples of Extranuclear Inheritance
Shoot Variegation in the Four O'Clock
The [poky] Mutant of Neurospora
Yeast petite Mutants
Non-Mendelian Genetics of Chlamydomonas
Human Genetic Diseases and Mitochondrial DNA Defects
Infectious Heredity: Killer Yeast
Contrasts to Non-Mendelian Inheritance
Maternal Effect
Genomic Imprinting
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
DNA: The Genetic Material
The Search for Genetic Material
Griffith's Transformation Experiment
Avery's Transformation Experiment
The Hershey-Chase Bacteriophage Experiment
The Composition and Structure of DNA and RNA
The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix
Different DNA Structures
DNA in the Cell
The Organization of DNA in Chromosomes
Viral Chromosomes
Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Chromosomes of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Unique-Sequence and Repetitive-Sequence DNA
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
DNA Replication
Semiconservative DNA Replication
The Meselson-Stahl Experiment
Semiconservative DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
Enzymes Involved in DNA Synthesis
DNA Polymerase I
Role of DNA Polymerases
Molecular Model of DNA Replication
Initiation of Replication
Semidiscontinuous DNA Replication
DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle
Eukaryotic Replication Enzymes
Replicons
Origins of Replication
Replicating the Ends of Chromosomes
Assembling New DNA into Nucleosomes
DNA Recombination
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Gene Control of Proteins
Gene Control of Enzyme Structure
Garrod's Hypothesis on Inborn Errors of Metabolism
The One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis
Genetically Based Enzyme Deficiencies in Humans
Phenylketonuria
Albinism
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
Tay-Sachs Disease
Gene Control of Protein Structure
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Other Hemoglobin Mutants
Biochemical Genetics of the Human ABO Blood Groups
Cystic Fibrosis
Genetic Counseling
Carrier Detection
Fetal Analysis
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Gene Expression: Transcription
Gene Expression: An Overview
The Transcription Process
RNA Synthesis
Initiation of Transcription at Promoters
Elongation and Termination of an RNA Chain
Transcription in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases
Transcription of Protein-Coding Genes by RNA Polymerase II
Eukaryotic mRNAs
Transcription of Other Genes
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Gene Expression: Translation
Proteins
Chemical Structure of Proteins
Molecular Structure of Proteins
The Nature of the Genetic Code
The Genetic Code Is a Triplet Code
Deciphering the Genetic Code
Characteristics of the Genetic Code
Translation: The Process of Protein Synthesis
Charging tRNA
Initiation of Translation
Elongation of the Polypeptide Chain
Termination of Translation
Protein Sorting in the Cell
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Recombinant DNA Cloning Technology
DNA Cloning
Restriction Enzymes
Cloning Vectors and DNA Cloning
Recombinant DNA Libraries
Genomic Libraries
cDNA Libraries
Finding a Specific Clone in a Library
Analysis of Genes and Gene Transcripts
Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Cloned DNA Sequences
Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Genes in the Genome
Analysis of Gene Transcripts
DNA Sequencing
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
Analysis of Biological Processes
Glucose Repression of Transcription of the Yeast GAL1 Gene
DNA Molecular Testing for Human Disease Mutations
Concept of DNA Molecular Testing
Purposes of Human Genetic Testing
Examples of DNA Molecular Testing
Isolation of Human Genes
Cloning the Cystic Fibrosis Gene
DNA Typing
DNA Typing in a Paternity Case
Other Applications of DNA Typing
Gene Therapy
Commercial Products
Genetic Engineering of Plants
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Genome Analysis
Structural Genomics
Sequencing Genomes
Overview of Genomes Sequenced
Bacterial Genomes
Eukaryotic Genomes
Functional Genomics
Identifying Genes in DNA Sequences
Homology Searches to Assign Gene Function
Assigning Gene Function Experimentally
Describing Patterns of Gene Expression
Comparative Genomics
Ethics and the Human Genome Project
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Regulation of Gene Expression in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
The lac Operon of E. coli
Lactose as a Carbon Source for E. coli
Experimental Evidence for the Regulation of lac Genes
Jacob and Monod's Operon Model for the Regulation of lac Genes
Positive Control of the lac Operon
The trp Operon of E. coli
Gene Organization of the Tryptophan Biosynthesis Genes
Regulation of the trp Operon
Regulation of Gene Expression in Phage Lambda
Early Transcription Events
The Lysogenic Pathway
The Lytic Pathway
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Levels of Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Transcriptional Control
RNA Processing Control
mRNA Translation Control
mRNA Degradation Control
Protein Degradation Control
Gene Regulation in Development and Differentiation
Constancy of DNA in the Genome During Development
Differential Gene Activity Among Tissues and During Development
Immunogenetics and Chromosome Rearrangements During Development
Genetic Regulation of Development in Drosophila
Drosophila Developmental Stages
Embryonic Development
Microarray Analysis of Drosophila Development
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Genetics of Cancer
Relationship of the Cell Cycle to Cancer
The Two-Hit Mutation Model for Cancer
Genes and Cancer
Oncogenes
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Mutator Genes
The Multistep Nature of Cancer
Chemicals and Radiation as Carcinogens
Chemical Carcinogens
Radiation
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
DNA Mutation and Repair
Adaptation Versus Mutation
Mutations Defined
Types of Point Mutations
Reverse Mutations and Suppressor Mutations
Spontaneous and Induced Mutations
Spontaneous Mutations
Induced Mutations
Chemical Mutagens in the Environment
DNA Repair Mechanisms
Direct Correction of Mutational Lesions
Repair Involving Excision of Base Pairs
Human Genetic Diseases Resulting from DNA Replication and Repair Mutations
Detecting Mutations
Visible Mutations
Auxotrophic Mutations
Conditional Mutations
Resistance Mutations
Molecular Screens
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Transposable Elements
General Features of Transposable Elements
Transposable Elements in Prokaryotes
Insertion Sequences
Transposons
Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes
Transposons in Plants
Ty Elements in Yeast
P Elements in Drosophila
Human Retrotransposons
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Chromosomal Mutations
Types of Chromosomal Mutations
Variations in Chromosome Structure
Deletion
Duplication
Inversion
Translocation
Fragile Sites and Fragile X Syndrome
Variations in Chromosome Number
Changes in One or a Few Chromosomes
Changes in Complete Sets of Chromosomes
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Population Genetics
Genetic Structure of Populations
Genotypic Frequencies
Allelic Frequencies
The Hardy-Weinberg Law
Assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law
Predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law
Derivation of the Hardy-Weinberg Law
Extensions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law to Loci with More than Two Alleles
Extensions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law to Sex-Linked Alleles
Testing for Hardy-Weinberg Proportions
Using the Hardy-Weinberg Law to Estimate Allelic Frequencies
Genetic Variation in Space and Time
Genetic Variation in Natural Populations
Measuring Genetic Variation at the Protein Level
Measuring Genetic Variation at the DNA Level
Forces That Change Gene Frequencies in Populations
Mutation
Random Genetic Drift
Migration
Natural Selection
Balance Between Mutation and Selection
Assortative Mating
Inbreeding
Summary of the Effects of Evolutionary Forces on the Genetic Structure of a Population
Changes in Allelic Frequency Within a Population
Genetic Divergence Between Populations
Increases and Decreases in Genetic Variation Within Populations
The Role of Genetics in Conservation Biology
Speciation
Barriers to Gene Flow
Genetic Basis for Speciation
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Quantitative Genetics
The Nature of Continuous Traits
Why Some Traits Have Continuous Phenotypes
Questions Studied in Quantitative Genetics
Statistical Tools
Samples and Populations
Distributions
The Mean
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
Correlation
Polygenic Inheritance
Inheritance of Ear Length in Corn
Polygene Hypothesis for Quantitative Inheritance
Quantitative Trait Loci
Heritability
Components of the Phenotypic Variance
Broad-Sense and Narrow-Sense Heritability
Understanding Heritability
Response to Selection
Estimating the Response to Selection
Genetic Correlations
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Molecular Evolution
Patterns and Modes of Substitutions
Nucleotide Substitutions in DNA Sequences
Rates of Nucleotide Substitutions
Variations in Evolutionary Rates Between Genes
Rates of Evolution in Mitochondrial DNA
Molecular Clocks
Molecular Phylogeny
Phylogenetic Trees
Reconstruction Methods
Phylogenetic Trees on a Grand Scale
Acquisition and Origins of New Functions
Multigene Families
Gene Duplication and Gene Conversion
Arabidopsis Genome Results
Summary
Analytical Approaches for Solving Genetics Problems
Questions and Problems
Glossary
Suggested Readings
Solutions to Selected Questions and Problems
Credits
Index

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