Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

ISBN-10: 080131903X

ISBN-13: 9780801319037

Edition: 2nd 2001 (Abridged)

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Description:

Embodying advances in cognitive psychology since the publication of Bloom's taxonomy, this revision of that framework is designed to help teachers understand and implement standards-based curriculums as well as facilitate constructing and analyzing their own. A revision only in the sense that it builds on the original framework, it is a completely new manuscript in both text and organization. Its two-dimensional framework interrelates knowledge with the cognitive processes students use to gain and work with knowledge. Together, these define the goals, curriculum standards, and objectives students are expected to learn. The framework facilitates the exploration of curriculums from four perspectives-what is intended to be taught, how it is to be taught, how learning is to be assessed, and how well the intended aims, instruction and assessments are aligned for effective education. This "revisited" framework allows you to connect learning from all these perspectives.
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Book details

List price: $73.60
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/19/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 336
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Peter W. Airasian is Professor of Education at Boston College, where he is Chair of the Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation Program. His main teaching responsibilities are instructing pre- and in-service teachers in classroom assessment strategies. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, with a concentration in testing, evaluation, and assessment. He is a former high school chemistry and biology teacher. He has authored numerous books on assessment, including of Minimal Competency Testing (1979), School Effectiveness: A Reassessment of the Evidence (1980), The Effects of Standardized Testing (1982), Teacher Evaluation Toolkit (1997), Assessment in the Classroom (1997 and 2000), and Classroom Assessment (1991, 1994, 1997, and 2001)). He is a past Chair of the American Educational Research Association's Special Interest Group on Classroom Assessment. Currently, he is continuing his study of the role of assessments in classrooms and examining issues related to the evaluation of teachers.

List of Tables and Figures
Preface
Foreword
The Taxonomy: Educational Objectives and Student Learning
Introduction
The Need for a Taxonomy
Using Our Increased Understanding
The Taxonomy Table, Objectives, and Instructional Time
The Taxonomy Table and Instruction
The Taxonomy Table and Assessment
The Concept of Alignment
Teachers as Curriculum Makers Versus Teachers as Curriculum Implementers: A Closing Comment
The Structure, Specificity, and Problems of Objectives
The Structure of Objectives
Content Versus Knowledge
Behavior Versus Cognitive Processes
Specificity of Objectives
Global Objectives
Educational Objectives
Instructional Objectives
Summary of Levels of Objectives
What Objectives Are Not
A Changing Vocabulary of Objectives
Problems with Objectives
Specificity and Inclusiveness
The Lock-Step Nature of Objectives
What Does an Objective Represent--Learning or Performance?
The Restricted Use of Objectives
Concluding Comment
The Revised Taxonomy Structure
The Taxonomy Table
Categories of the Knowledge Dimension
Categories of the Cognitive Process Dimension
The Taxonomy Table and Objectives: A Diagrammatic Summary
Why Categorize Objectives?
Our Use of Multiple Forms of Definition
Verbal Descriptions
Sample Objectives
Sample Assessment Tasks
Sample Instructional Activities
Closing Comment: A Look Ahead
The Knowledge Dimension
A Distinction Between Knowledge and Subject Matter Content: A Tale of Four Teachers
Different Types of Knowledge
A Distinction Between Factual and Conceptual Knowledge
A Rationale for Metacognitive Knowledge
Categories of the Knowledge Dimension
Factual Knowledge
Knowledge of Terminology
Knowledge of Specific Details and Elements
Conceptual Knowledge
Knowledge of Classifications and Categories
Knowledge of Principles and Generalizations
Knowledge of Theories, Models, and Structures
Procedural Knowledge
Knowledge of Subject-Specific Skills and Algorithms
Knowledge of Subject-Specific Techniques and Methods
Knowledge of Criteria for Determining when to Use Appropriate Procedures
Metacognitive Knowledge
Strategic Knowledge
Knowledge About Cognitive Tasks, Including Contextual and Conditional Knowledge
Self-Knowledge
Assessing Objectives Involving Metacognitive Knowledge
Conclusion
The Cognitive Process Dimension
A Tale of Three Learning Outcomes
No Learning
Rote Learning
Meaningful Learning
Meaningful Learning as Constructing Knowledge Frameworks
Cognitive Processes for Retention and Transfer
The Categories of the Cognitive Process Dimension
Remember
Recognizing
Recalling
Understand
Interpreting
Exemplifying
Classifying
Summarizing
Inferring
Comparing
Explaining
Apply
Executing
Implementing
Analyze
Differentiating
Organizing
Attributing
Evaluate
Checking
Critiquing
Create
Generating
Planning
Producing
Decontextualized and Contextualized Cognitive Processes
An Example of Educational Objectives in Context
Remembering What Was Learned
Making Sense of and Using What Was Learned
Conclusion
The Taxonomy in Use
Using the Taxonomy Table
Using the Taxonomy Table in Analyzing Your Own Work
Using the Taxonomy Table in Analyzing the Work of Others
The Taxonomy Table Revisited
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Problems in Classifying Objectives
The Level of Specificity Problem
The Prior Learning Problem
Differentiating Objectives from Activities
Some Helpful Hints
Consider the Verb-Noun Combination
Relate Type of Knowledge to Process
Make Sure You Have the Right Noun
Rely on Multiple Sources
Introduction to the Vignettes
Characterization of the Vignettes
The Curriculum Unit
Central Components of the Vignette Descriptions
Using the Taxonomy Table to Analyze the Vignettes
The Analytic Process: A Summary
Organization and Structure of the Vignette Chapters
A Closing Comment
Nutrition Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Attachments
Macbeth Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Attachments
Addition Facts Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Parliamentary Acts Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Attachments
Volcanoes? Here? Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Attachments
Report Writing Vignette
Objectives
Instructional Activities
Assessment
Closing Commentary
The Learning Question
The Instruction Question
The Assessment Question
The Alignment Question
Closing Questions
Attachments
Addressing Long-Standing Problems in Classroom Instruction
Generalizations Related to the Learning Question
Using Complex Processes to Facilitate Mastery of Simpler Objectives
Choosing Varieties of Knowledge
Generalizations Related to the Instruction Question
Recognizing Links Between Knowledge Types and Cognitive Processes
Differentiating Instructional Activities from Objectives
Generalizations Related to the Assessment Questions
Using Summative and Formative Assessments
Dealing with External Assessments
Generalizations Related to the Alignment Question
Aligning Assessments with Objectives
Aligning Instructional Activities with Assessments
Aligning Instructional Activities with Objectives
A Final Comment
The Taxonomy in Perspective
The Taxonomy in Relation to Alternative Frameworks
Unidimensional Classification Systems
Gerlach and Sullivan's Taxonomy of Commonly Taught Behaviors
Ausubel and Robinson's Six Hierarchically Ordered Categories
Metfessel, Michael, and Kirsner's Synonyms
Gagne's Hierarchy of Learning
Stahl and Murphy's Domain of Cognition
Bruce's Integration of Knowledge with the Other Categories
Romizowski's Analysis of Knowledge and Skills
Biggs and Collis's SOLO
Quellmalz's Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes
Hauenstein's Conceptual Framework for Educational Objectives
Reigeluth and Moore's Comparison Framework
Multidimensional Classification Systems
DeBlock's Three-Dimensional Framework
DeCorte's Modification of Guilford's Structure of Intellect Model
Ormell's Modification of the Taxonomy
Hannah and Michaelis's Comprehensive Framework for Instructional Objectives
Williams's Behavioral typology of Educational Objectives
Marzano's Dimensions of Learning
Merrill's Component Display Theory
Haladyna (1997) and Williams and Haladyna's (1982) Typology for Higher-Level Test Items
Similarities of the Revision's Changes to the 19 Alternative Frameworks
Empirical Studies of the Structure of the Taxonomy
Studies of the Cumulative Hierarchy Issue
A Weak Empirical Approach to Checking for a Cumulative Hierarchy
A Stronger Empirical Approach to Checking for a Cumulative Hierarchy
A Meta-Analysis of the Available Intercorrelational Data Among Categories
The Ordering of the Evaluation (Evaluate) and Synthesis (Create) Categories
Evidence from Structural Linear Equation Modeling Studies
In Conclusion
Unsolved Problems
Relationships Among Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
Curriculum Concerns
Instruction Concerns
Assessment Concerns
Usefulness of the Framework to Students
Relationship to a Theory of Learning and Cognition
Relationships Among the Domains
In Closing
Appendixes
Summary of Changes from the Original Framework
Four Changes in Emphasis
Four Changes in Terminology
Four Changes in Structure
The Inclusion of Understanding and the Omission of Problem Solving and Critical Thinking
Condensed Version of the Original Taxonomy of Education Objectives: Cognitive Domain
Knowledge
Intellectual Abilities and Skills
Data Used in the Meta-Analysis in Chapter 16
References
Credits
Index
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