Microsystem Design

ISBN-10: 0792372468
ISBN-13: 9780792372462
Edition: 2001
List price: $134.00 Buy it from $28.11 Rent it from $30.19
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Description: The goal of this book is to bring together into one accessible text the fundamentals of the many disciplines needed by today's engineer working in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The subject matter is wide-ranging:  More...

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Book details

List price: $134.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/8/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 689
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.398
Language: English

The goal of this book is to bring together into one accessible text the fundamentals of the many disciplines needed by today's engineer working in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The subject matter is wide-ranging: microfabrication, mechanics, heat flow, electronics, noise, and dynamics of systems, with and without feedback. Because it is very difficult to enunciate principles of `good design' in the abstract, the book is organized around a set of Case Studies that are based on real products, or, where appropriately well-documented products could not be found, on thoroughly published prototype work. The Case Studies were selected to sample a multidimensional space: different manufacturing and fabrication methods, different device applications, and different physical effects used for transduction. The Case Study subjects are: the design and packaging of a piezoresistive pressure sensor, a capacitively-sensed accelerometer, a quartz piezoelectrically-driven and sensed rate gyroscope, two electrostatically-actuated optical projection displays, two microsystems for the amplification of DNA, and a catalytic sensor for combustible gases. This book is used for a graduate course in `Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices (MEMS)' at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is appropriate for textbook use by senior/graduate courses in MEMS, and will be a useful reference for the active MEMS professional. Each chapter is supplemented with homework problems and suggested related reading. In addition, the book is supported by a web site that will include additional homework exercises, suggested design problems and related teaching materials, and software used in the textbook examples and homework problems.

PETER L. HAGELSTEIN is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. He is a principal investigator in the Optics and Quantum Electronics Group of the Research Laboratory of Electronics. STEPHEN D. SENTURIA formerly held the Barton L. Weller Chair in Electrical Engineering at MIT. He retired in 2002, and currently serves as Chairman and Chief Technology Officer of Polychromix, Inc. in Woburn, Massachusetts. He is Senior Editor of the ASME/IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. TERRY P. ORLANDO is a professor of electrical engineering and principal investigator at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT. His research focuses on superconducting circuits for quantum computation and nonlinear dynamics.PETER L. HAGELSTEIN is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. He is a principal investigator in the Optics and Quantum Electronics Group of the Research Laboratory of Electronics. STEPHEN D. SENTURIA formerly held the Barton L. Weller Chair in Electrical Engineering at MIT. He retired in 2002, and currently serves as Chairman and Chief Technology Officer of Polychromix, Inc. in Woburn, Massachusetts. He is Senior Editor of the ASME/IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. TERRY P. ORLANDO is a professor of electrical engineering and principal investigator at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT. His research focuses on superconducting circuits for quantum computation and nonlinear dynamics.

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Getting Started
Introduction
Microsystems vs. MEMS
What are they?
How are they made?
What are they made of?
How are they designed?
Markets for Microsystems and MEMS
Case Studies
Looking Ahead
An Approach to MEMS Design
Design: The Big Picture
Device Categories
High-Level Design Issues
The Design Process
Modeling Levels
Analytical or Numerical?
A Closer Look
Example: A Position-Control System
Going Forward From Here
Microfabrication
Overview
Wafer-Level Processes
Substrates
Wafer Cleaning
Oxidation of Silicon
Local Oxidation
Doping
Thin-Film Deposition
Wafer Bonding
Pattern Transfer
Optical Lithography
Design Rules
Mask Making
Wet Etching
Dry Etching
Additive Processes: Lift-Off
Planarization
Conclusion
Process Integration
Developing a Process
A Simple Process Flow
The Self-Aligned Gate: A Paradigm-Shifting Process
Basic Principles of Process Design
From Shape to Process and Back Again
Process Design Issues
Sample Process Flows
A Bulk-Micromachined Diaphragm Pressure Sensor
A Surface-Micromachined Suspended Filament
Moving On
Modeling Strategies
Lumped Modeling
Introduction
Conjugate Power Variables
One-Port Elements
Ports
The Variable-Assignment Conventions
One-Port Source Elements
One-Port Circuit Elements
Circuit Connections in the e [right arrow] V Convention
Kirchhoff's Laws
Formulation of Dynamic Equations
Complex Impedances
State Equations
Transformers and Gyrators
Impedance Transformations
The Electrical Inductor
Energy-Conserving Transducers
Introduction
The Parallel-Plate Capacitor
Charging the Capacitor at Fixed Gap
Charging the Capacitor at Zero Gap, then Lifting
The Two-Port Capacitor
Electrostatic Actuator
Charge Control
Voltage Control
Pull-In
Adding Dynamics to the Actuator Model
The Magnetic Actuator
Equivalent Circuits for Linear Transducers
The Position Control System--Revisited
Dynamics
Introduction
Linear System Dynamics
Direct Integration
System Functions
Fourier Transform
Sinusoidal Steady State
Eigenfunction Analysis
Nonlinear Dynamics
Fixed Points of Nonlinear Systems
Linearization About an Operating Point
Linearization of the Electrostatic Actuator
Transducer Model for the Linearized Actuator
Direct Integration of State Equations
Resonators and Oscillators
And Then There's Chaos...
Domain-Specific Details
Elasticity
Introduction
Constitutive Equations of Linear Elasticity
Stress
Strain
Elastic Constants for Isotropic Materials
Other Elastic Constants
Isotropic Elasticity in Three Dimensions
Plane Stress
Elastic Constants for Anisotropic Materials
Thermal Expansion and Thin-Film Stress
Other Sources of Residual Thin-Film Stress
Selected Mechanical Property Data
Material Behavior at Large Strains
Plastic Deformation
Structures
Overview
Axially Loaded Beams
Beams With Varying Cross-section
Statically Indeterminate Beams
Stresses on Inclined Sections
Bending of Beams
Types of Support
Types of Loads
Reaction Forces and Moments
Pure Bending of a Transversely Loaded Beam
Differential Equation for Beam Bending
Elementary Solutions of the Beam Equation
Anticlastic Curvature
Bending of Plates
Plate in Pure Bending
Effects of Residual Stresses and Stress Gradients
Stress Gradients in Cantilevers
Residual Stresses in Doubly-Supported Beams
Buckling of Beams
Plates With In-Plane Stress
What about large deflections?
Energy Methods
Elastic Energy
The Principle of Virtual Work
Variational Methods
Properties of the Variational Solution
Large Deflections of Elastic Structures
A Center-Loaded Doubly-Clamped Beam
Combining Variational Results with Simulations
The Uniformly Loaded Doubly-Clamped Beam
Residual Stress in Clamped Structures
Elastic Energy in Plates and Membranes
Uniformly Loaded Plates and Membranes
Membrane Load-Deflection Behavior
Rayleigh-Ritz Methods
Estimating Resonant Frequencies
Extracting Lumped-Element Masses
Dissipation and the Thermal Energy Domain
Dissipation is Everywhere
Electrical Resistance
Charging a Capacitor
Dissipative Processes
The Thermal Energy Domain
The Heat-Flow Equation
Basic Thermodynamic Ideas
Lumped Modeling in the Thermal Domain
Self-Heating of a Resistor
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
Current-source drive
Voltage-source drive
A Self-Heated Silicon Resistor
Other Dissipation Mechanisms
Contact Friction
Dielectric losses
Viscoelastic losses
Magnetic Losses
Diffusion
Irreversible Thermodynamics: Coupled Flows
Thermoelectric Power and Thermocouples
Thermoelectric Heating and Cooling
Other Coupled-Flow Problems
Modeling Time-Dependent Dissipative Processes
Lumped Modeling of Dissipative Processes
Overview
The Generalized Heat-Flow Equation
The DC Steady State: The Poisson Equation
Finite-Difference Solution of the Poisson Equation
Temperature Distribution in a Self-Heated Resistor
Eigenfunction Solution of the Poisson Equation
Transient Response: Finite-Difference Approach
Transient Response: Eigenfunction Method
One-Dimensional Example
Equivalent Circuit for a Single Mode
Equivalent Circuit Including All Modes
Fluids
What Makes Fluids Difficult?
Basic Fluid Concepts
Viscosity
Thermophysical Properties
Surface Tension
Conservation of Mass
Time Rate of Change of Momentum
The Navier-Stokes Equation
Energy Conservation
Reynolds Number and Mach Number
Incompressible Laminar Flow
Couette Flow
Poiseuille Flow
Development Lengths and Boundary Layers
Stokes Flow
Squeezed-Film Damping
Rigid Parallel-Plate Small-Amplitude Motion
Electrolytes and Electrokinetic Effects
Ionic Double Layers
Electroosmotic Flow
Electrophoresis
Diffusion Effects
Pressure Effects
Mixing
Modeling of Electrokinetic Systems
Circuit and System Issues
Electronics
Introduction
Elements of Semiconductor Physics
Equilibrium Carrier Concentrations
Excess Carriers
The Semiconductor Diode
The Diffused Resistor
The Photodiode
The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The MOSFET
Large-Signal Characteristics of the MOSFET
MOSFET Capacitances
Small-Signal Model of the MOSFET
MOSFET Amplifiers
The CMOS Inverter
Large-Signal Switching Speed
The Linear-Gain Region
Other Amplifier Configurations
Operational Amplifiers
Dynamic Effects
Basic Op-Amp Circuits
Inverting Amplifier
Short Method for Analyzing Op-Amp Circuits
Noninverting Amplifier
Transimpedance Amplifier
Integrator
Differentiator
Charge-Measuring Circuits
Differential Charge Measurement
Switched-Capacitor Circuits
Feedback Systems
Introduction
Basic Feedback Concepts
Feedback in Linear Systems
Feedback Amplifiers
Example: The Position Controller
PID Control
The Effect of Amplifier Bandwidth
Phase Margin
Noise and Disturbances
Stabilization of Unstable Systems
Controllability and Observability Revisited
Feedback in Nonlinear Systems
Quasi-static Nonlinear Feedback Systems
Resonators and Oscillators
Simulink Model
The (Almost) Sinusoidal Oscillator
Relaxation Oscillation
Noise
Introduction
The Interference Problem
Shields
Ground Loops
Guards
Characterization of Signals
Amplitude-Modulated Signals
Characterization of Random Noise
Mean-Square and Root-Mean-Square Noise
Addition of Uncorrelated Sources
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Spectral Density Function
Noise in Linear Systems
Noise Sources
Thermal Noise
Noise Bandwidth
Shot Noise
Flicker Noise
Amplifier Noise
Example: A Resistance Thermometer
Using a DC source
Modulation of an AC Carrier
Caution: Modulation Does Not Always Work
Drifts
Case Studies
Packaging
Introduction to the Case Studies
Packaging, Test, and Calibration
An Approach to Packaging
A Commercial Pressure-Sensor Case Study
Device Concept
System Partitioning
Interfaces
Details
A Final Comment
A Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor
Sensing Pressure
Piezoresistance
Analytic Formulation in Cubic Materials
Longitudinal and Transverse Piezoresistance
Piezoresistive Coefficients of Silicon
Structural Examples
Averaging over Stress and Doping Variations
A Numerical Example
The Motorola MAP Sensor
Process Flow
Details of the Diaphragm and Piezoresistor
Stress Analysis
Signal-Conditioning and Calibration
Device Noise
Recent Design Changes
Higher-Order Effects
A Capacitive Accelerometer
Introduction
Fundamentals of Quasi-Static Accelerometers
Position Measurement With Capacitance
Circuits for Capacitance Measurement
Demodulation Methods
Chopper-Stabilized Amplifiers
Correlated Double Sampling
Signal-to-Noise Issues
A Capacitive Accelerometer Case Study
Specifications
Sensor Design and Modeling
Fabrication and Packaging
Noise and Accuracy
Position Measurement With Tunneling Tips
Electrostatic Projection Displays
Introduction
Electromechanics of the DMD Device
Electrode Structure
Torsional Pull-in
Electromechanics of Electrostatically Actuated Beams
M-Test
The Grating-Light-Valve Display
Diffraction Theory
Device Fabrication and Packaging
Quantitative Estimates of GLV Device Performance
A Comparison
A Piezoelectric Rate Gyroscope
Introduction
Kinematics of Rotation
The Coriolis Rate Gyroscope
Sinusoidal Response Function
Steady Rotation
Response to Angular Accelerations
Generalized Gyroscopic Modes
Piezoelectricity
The Origin of Piezoelectricity
Analytical Formulation of Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectric Materials
Piezoelectric Actuation
Sensing with Piezoelectricity
A Quartz Rate Gyroscope Case Study
Electrode Structures
Lumped-Element Modeling of Piezoelectric Devices
QRS Specifications and Performance
A Quantitative Device Model
The Drive Mode
Sense-Mode Displacement of the Drive Tines
Coupling to the Sense Tines
Noise and Accuracy Considerations
Closing Comments
Dna Amplification
Introduction
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Elements of PCR
Specifications for a PCR System
Microsystem Approaches to PCR
Batch System
PCR Flow System
Thermal Model of the Batch Reactor
Control Circuit and Transient Behavior
Thermal Model of the Continuous Flow Reactor
A Comparison
A Microbridge Gas Sensor
Overview
System-Level Issues
First-Order Device and System Models
Filament Characteristics
Resistance-Control System
A Practical Device and Fabrication Process
Creating the Filament
High-Temperature Bond Pads
Catalyst Coating
Sensor Performance
Demonstration of Hydrogen Detection
Mass-Transport-Limited Operation
Reaction-Rate-Limited Operation
Advanced Modeling
Epilogue
Appendices
Glossary of Notation
Electromagnetic Fields
Introduction
Quasistatic Fields
Elementary Laws
Electroquasistatic Systems
Magnetoquasistatic Systems
Elastic Constants in Cubic Material
References
Index

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