Building Expertise Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement

ISBN-10: 0787988448

ISBN-13: 9780787988449

Edition: 3rd 2008

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Description: Building expertise is a key source of competitive advantage in the knowledge economy. Building Expertise meets this challenge by providing a guide for instructional designers, course developers, and technical communicators interested in using research-based psychological theory to build effective training materials.Clark summarizes cognitive theories concerning working memory, long-term memory, and attention and describes instructional methods for each. This new edition contains an updated review of relevant research from cognitive and instructional design fields, revised practical guidelines for problem-centered instruction, motivation, transfer, and new action-oriented examples.

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Book details

List price: $42.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/22/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 512
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.738
Language: English

Introduction to the Third Edition: Getting the Most from This Resource
Foundations of Building Expertise
Expertise in the Global Economy
The Value of Expertise
What Is an Expert?
Seven Lessons Learned About Experts
Four Ingredients of Instruction
Which Media Are Best for Learning?
Four Components of Learning
Three Views of Learning
Four Instructional Architectures
No Yellow Brick Road
Instructional Components and Learning: No Yellow Brick Road
Graphics and Learning: A Journey Down the Yellow Brick Road
Factors That Influence Learning
Toward an Evidence-Based Training Profession
About the Numbers
The Psychology of Building Expertise
Two Memories for Learning
The Transformation of Content into Knowledge and Skills
Eight Principles for Instruction
Basic Learning Events Proven to Build Expertise
How Working Memory Works
Working Memory: The Center of Learning
New Content Has a Short Shelf Life in Working Memory
Chess, Chunking, and Capacity Limits of Working Memory
What Happens When Working Memory is Overloaded?
Automaticity: A Working Memory Bypass
Visual and Auditory Components in Working Memory
Why Is Working Memory So Limited?
Working Memory and Performance
Managing Cognitive Load
The Cognitive Load Management Principle
Methods That Bypass Working Memory
Methods That Minimize Content
Methods to Impose Content Gradually
Methods to Minimize Unproductive Mental Work
Methods to Maximize Working Memory Capacity
Managing Attention
The High Price of Attention Failure
The Attention Principle
Instructional Methods to Support Attention
Optimizing Attentional Capacity in the Classroom
Methods to Focus Attention
Methods to Support Selective Attention
What Is Divided Attention?
Methods to Minimize Divided Attention
Leveraging Prior Knowledge
The Prior Knowledge Principle
Methods to Activate Prior Knowledge
Methods to Compensate for Limited Prior Knowledge
Avoid Activating Inappropriate Prior Knowledge
When to Use Prior Knowledge Methods
Helping Learners Build Mental Models: Implicit Methods
The Building Mental Models Principle
Explicit and Implicit Encoding Methods
Implicit Methods to Build Mental Models
Use Graphics to Build Mental Models
Personalize Your Learning Environment
Include Deep-Level Learning Agent Dialogs
Provide Examples and Encourage Their Processing
Provide Effective Analogies
Include Process Content in Your Instruction
Offer Cognitive Support for Novice Learners
Helping Learners Build Mental Models: Explicit Methods
Is Active Learning Better? A Tale of Six Lessons
Building Mental Models Principle
Explicit vs. Implicit Methods for Building Mental Models
Maintenance vs. Elaborative Rehearsal
Incorporate Frequent Elaborative Practice Exercises
The Law of Diminishing Returns
Distribute Practice Assignments
Provide Explanatory Feedback
Use Effective Questioning Techniques in the Classroom
Promote Psychological Engagement with Graphics
Promote Explicit Self-Explanations of Content
Incorporate Collaborative Learning Opportunities
Minimize Note-Taking in Instructor-Led Presentations
Who Benefits from Practice?
Learning vs. Performance: The Psychology of Transfer
Transfer: The Bridge from Training to Performance
Four Tales of Transfer Failure
Causes of Transfer Failure
The Transfer Challenge
Specific Versus General Theories of Transfer
The Transfer Continuum
Surface Versus Deep Structure and Transfer
Transfer and Intelligence
Teaching for Transfer
Transfer: It's All About Context
Teaching for Near-Transfer Performance
Learning Aids for Near-Transfer Learning
Teaching for Moderate Transfer
Teaching for Far-Transfer Performance
Learning Aids for Guided-Discovery Simulations
Promoting Adaptive Expertise and Motivation
Problem-Centered Instruction
The Revival of Problem-Centered Learning
The Benefits of Problem-Centered Design
Three Problem-Centered Design Models
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
4C/ID
Sherlock and Cognitive Apprenticeship
Applying Problem-Centered Design
Issues in Problem-Centered Instruction
Reservations About Problem-Centered Instruction
Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Adaptive Expertise
Cognition, Metacognition, and Adaptive Expertise
Metacognition and Self-Regulation
Are Learners Self-Regulated?
Supporting Self-Regulation During Learning
Domain-Specific Metacognitive Skills
Building Domain-Specific Metacognitive Skills
Motivation and Expertise
Motivation for Learning
What Is Motivation?
External vs. Internal Views of Motivation
Beliefs and Learning Choices
Beliefs About Learning Outcomes and Persistence
Goal Setting and Motivation
Motivating Your Learners
Instructional Environments That Motivate
Evidence for Managing Learner Beliefs
Promote Self-Confidence by Structuring for Success
Encourage Mastery (Progress) Goal Orientations
Exploit Personal and Situational Interest
Techniques to Promote Cognitive Situational Interest
Leverage Personal Interest
Make Values Salient
Building Expertise in Action
Practical Applications in Building Expertise
Adopting Evidence-Based Practice
What Is an Excellent Lesson?
A Receptive Presentation
A Directive e-Lesson
A Guided-Discovery Classroom Workshop
Exploratory Architectures for Far-Transfer Learning
A Final Word
References
Glossary
Name Index
Subject Index
About the Author
About ISPI
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