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Nurse Educator's Guide to Assessing Learning Outcomes

ISBN-10: 0763740233
ISBN-13: 9780763740238
Edition: 2nd 2008 (Revised)
Authors: Mary E. McDonald
List price: $296.85 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: As multiple choice exams are a fundamental component of the assessment of learning outcomes in the classroom setting, this text consolidates all of the available information for the development of classroom exams, and focuses specifically on the  More...

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Book details

List price: $296.85
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 3/7/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 362
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.266
Language: English

As multiple choice exams are a fundamental component of the assessment of learning outcomes in the classroom setting, this text consolidates all of the available information for the development of classroom exams, and focuses specifically on the systematic development of multiple-choice exams in nursing education. The second edition includes the following topics: assessment of critical thinking, learning objectives and outcomes, development of tests, creation of multiple choice items, and analysis of test reliability.

Acknowledgments
Preface
The Role of Assessment in Instruction
The Process of Assessment
Ethical Responsibility
Assessment and Self-Efficacy
Assessment Inadequacy
Assessment Competency Standards
The Need for a Systematic Approach to Assessment
Assessment Instruments
Summary
The Language of Assessment
Assessment
Measurement
Evaluation
Formative Evaluation
Summative Evaluation
Instructional Objectives
Learning Outcomes
Blueprint
Item Bank
Test
Interpreting Test Scores
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Norm-Referenced Tests
High-Stakes Tests
Grade
Test Bias
Reliability
Validity
Evidence Based on Test Content
Evidence Based on Response Processes
Evidence Based on Internal Structure
Evidence Based on Relation to Other Variables
Evidence Based on the Consequences of Testing
Face Validity
Basic Test Statistics
Summary
Developing Instructional Objectives
Role of Objectives
Focus of Instructional Objectives
Stating Instructional Objectives
Specific Objectives
General Objectives
Learning Outcomes
Mastery (Performance) Objectives
Developmental Objectives
Framework for Writing Objectives
Number of Objectives
Number of Learning Outcomes
Taxonomies
Using Instructional Objectives
Criteria for Effective Objectives
Complete
Appropriate
Sound
Feasible
Relevant
Open-Ended
Delineate Student Behavior
Shared with Students
Summary
Assessing Critical Thinking
Accreditation Outcomes
Establishing Evidence of Validity
Defining Critical Thinking in Nursing
Sample Definition of Critical Thinking in Nursing
Instructional Objectives and Learner Outcomes
Behaviors Associated with the Characteristics of Critical Thinking
Possesses an Analytical Attitude
Demonstrates Sensitivity to Context
Questions Assumptions
Bases Inquiry on Credible Sources
Considers a Variety of Solutions
Pursues Ongoing Evaluation
Tri-Level Critical Thinking Objective
Critical Thinking Assessment Plan
Multiple-Choice Exams and Critical Thinking
Summary
Implementing Systematic Test Development
Initiating Test Development
Scheduling a Semester's Exams
Identifying the Purpose of the Test
Determining the Length of the Test
Selecting What to Test
Selecting the Appropriate Assessment Format
Weighting the Content and Course Objectives
Developing a Test Blueprint
Reviewing the Blueprint
Preparing Students for a Test
Sharing the Blueprint with Students
Pop Quizzes
Determining How Difficult a Test Should Be
Summary
Selected-Response Format: Developing Multiple-Choice Items
Advantages of Multiple-Choice Items
Limitations of Multiple-Choice Items
Relevance of Multiple-Choice Items
Item Writing Logistics
Style Guide
Electronic Item Development
Multiple-Choice Format
Stem Formats
Question
Completion
Item Writing Guidelines
General Guidelines
Characteristics of Effective Stems
Qualities of Effective Options
Developing the Correct Answer
Designing Effective Distractors
Characteristics to Avoid
Alternate National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) Items
Fill in the Blank
Point and Click
Multiple Response
Chart/Exhibit
Drag and Drop
Item Rationale
Question Difficulty
Framing Questions in Terms of the Nursing Process
Item Shells
Peer Review
Summary
Writing Critical Thinking Multiple-Choice Items
Characteristics of Critical Thinking Items
Sequential Reasoning
Language
Best Answer Format
Novel Problems
Applying Learning Outcomes
Critical Thinking and the Nursing Process
Summary
Selected-Response Format: Developing True-False and Matching Items
The True-False Item Format
Advantages of the True-False Item Format
Disadvantages of the True-False Item Format
Guidelines for Developing True-False Items
Characteristics of Effective True-False Items
Flaws to Avoid With True-False Items
Forms for True-False Item Writing
Types of True-False Items
Matching Exercise
Advantages of the Matching Exercise
Disadvantages of the Matching Exercise
Guidelines for Developing Matching Exercises
Summary
Constructed-Response Format: Developing Short-Answer and Essay Items
Short-Answer Item Format
Advantages of the Short-Answer Item Format
Disadvantages of the Short-Answer Item Format
Guidelines for Developing Short-Answer Items
Characteristics of Effective Short-Answer Items
Essay Question Format
Forms of Essay Questions
Advantages of the Essay Question
Disadvantages of the Essay Question
Guidelines for Developing Essay Items
Suggestions for Scoring Essay Items
Developing Essay Items to Assess Critical Thinking
Scoring Rubrics
Holistic Scoring Rubrics
Analytic Scoring Rubric
Developing Scoring Rubrics
Summary
Assembling, Administering, and Scoring a Test
Assembling a Test
Arranging Items
Editing and Proofreading
Formatting
Providing Directions
Reproducing
Maintaining Security
Administering a Test
Computer Test Administration
Physical Environment
Psychological Environment
Academic Dishonesty
Scoring a Test
Scoring a Classroom Exam
Statistical Analysis
Student Review
Summary
Preparing Students for the Licensure Exam: The Importance of NCLEX
The NCLEX Application Process
Development of the NCLEX
The NCLEX Practice Analyses
The NCLEX Test Plan
NCLEX Item Development
Characteristics of NCLEX Items
Cognitive Levels
Critical Thinking Ability
Alternate Formats
Characteristics of the NCLEX
CAT Format
Passing Standard
Logits
Examination Length
Preparing Nursing Students for the NCLEX
Curriculum Focus
NCLEX Test Plan Consideration
Classroom Test Development
Cross-Referencing the NCLEX Test Plans
Cross-Referencing for Integrated Processes
Standardized Examinations
Progression Policies
NCLEX Predictor Exit Exams
Facilitating Student Success
NCLEX Prep Courses
Summary
Establishing Evidence of Reliability and Validity
Reliability
Measures of Reliability
Factors Affecting the Reliability Coefficients of Classroom Exams
Homogeneity of the Test Content
Measurement Error
Validity
Content Validity Index
Interpretation of the Validity Coefficient
Summary
Interpreting Test Results
Overall Test Data Analysis
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Reliability Coefficient
Standard Error of Measurement
Mean p Value
Mean Biserial
Score Distribution
Histogram
Individual Item Analysis
Assigning Test Scores
Flawed Items
Returning Scores to Students
Summary
Laboratory and Clinical Evaluation
Relevance of Objectives
Elements of the Clinical/Laboratory Experience
Identification of Clinical Action Elements
Identifying Objectives and Outcomes
Assessing Learning Needs
Planning Clinical Learning Experiences
Instructing and Evaluating
The Professional Role
Designing and Using a Performance Tool
Using a Taxonomy
Assessment of Mastery Learning
Assessment of Developmental Learning
Portfolio Assessment
Implementing a Clinical Evaluation Tool
Summary
Assigning Grades
Grading Principles
Philosophy of Grading
What Meaning Should Each Grade Symbol Carry?
What Should Failure Mean?
What Elements of Performance Should Be Incorporated in a Grade?
How Should the Grades in a Class Be Distributed?
What Components Should Go Into a Final Grade?
How Should the Components of the Grade Be Combined?
What Method Should Be Used to Assign Grades?
Should Borderline Cases Be Reviewed?
What Other Factors Should Influence the Grading Policy?
Developing a Grading Plan
Weighting Components of a Grade
Pass/Fail Grading
Adjusting Grades
Scaling Grades
Giving Extra Credit
Dropping the Lowest Grade
Summary
Instituting Item Banking and Test Development Software
Establishing an Item Bank
Editing Items
Selecting a Test Development Software Program
Hardware Requirements
Item Banking Facility
Item Importing and Exporting
Word Processing
Item Classification
Supplemental Fields
Test Assembly
Scoring and Reporting
Storage of Item Date History
Grade Book Facility
Cost
Implementing Test Development Software
Appointing Test Bank Administrators
Establishing Procedures
Incorporating Textbook Item Banks
Summary
References
Appendices
Basic Test Statistics
Basic Style Guide
References
Targeting Cognitive Levels for Multiple-Choice Item Writing
Sample Item Stems for Phases of the Nursing Process
Assessment
Analysis
Planning
Implementation
Evaluation
Steps for Implementing a Systematic Assessment Plan
Relationship of Critical Thinking Characteristics to the Nursing Process
Index

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