Criminalistics Forensic Science and Crime

ISBN-10: 0763735299

ISBN-13: 9780763735296

Edition: 2008

Authors: James E. Girard
List price: $494.85
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Description: Providing a comprehensive introduction to forensic science for readers with a limited scientific background, this text examines how science is used in criminal investigations today, as well as reviewing the capabilities and limitations of current crime laboratories.

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Book details

List price: $494.85
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 7/2/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 482
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.948
Language: English

Introduction to Criminalistics
Investigating the Crime Scene
Introduction
Securing the Crime Scene
Identifying, Establishing, Protecting, and Securing the Boundaries
Documenting the Scene and the Evidence
Note Taking
Photography
Sketching
Videography
Systematic Search for Evidence
Recognition of Physical Evidence
Collection, Preservation, Inventory, and Transportation of Physical Evidence
Impression Evidence: Tire Tracks, Footprints, Tool Marks, Latent Fingerprints, and Palm Prints
Biological Evidence: Blood, Saliva, Semen, and Vaginal Fluids
Firearms and Ammunition
Arson and Bomb Evidence
Chemicals and Controlled Substances
Trace Evidence
Packaging Evidence
Submitting Evidence to the Crime Laboratory
Chain of Custody
Criminal Evidence and the Fourth Amendment
Exceptions to the Fourth Amendment
The Supreme Court and the Fourth Amendment
Wrap Up
Investigating and Processing Physical Evidence
Introduction
Types of Evidence
The Modern Crime Lab
National Laboratories
State and Municipal Laboratories
Divisions of the Crime Lab
Functions of a Forensic Scientist
Additional Information
State of the Evidence
Why Examine Physical Evidence?
Characteristics of Physical Evidence
Identification
Associative Evidence
Crime Scene Reconstruction
Pattern Evidence
Explosion Patterns
Firearm Ballistics
Entry and Exit Hole Geometry
Bullet Trajectory
Bullet Ricochet
Shell Casings
Bloodstain Patterns
Point of Convergence
Physical Evidence in Court
Expert Testimony
Wrap Up
Trace Evidence
Physical Properties: Forensic Characterization of Soil
Introduction
Physical and Chemical Properties
The Metric System
The International System of Units
SI Base Units
Conversion from the SI to the English System (and Vice Versa)
Mass and Weight
Temperature
Density
Soil
Forensic Characteristics of Soils
Gradient Tube Separation of Soil: Separation by Density
Collection and Preservation of Soil Evidence
Wrap Up
The Microscope and Forensic Identification of Hair and Fibers
Introduction
Magnifying Small Details
Refraction
Types of Microscopes
Compound Microscopes
Comparison Microscopes
Stereoscopic Microscopes
Polarizing Microscopes
Microspectrophotometers
Scanning Electron Microscopes
Forensic Applications of Microscopy: Hair
Hair Morphology
Hair Growth
Comparison of Hair by Microscopy
Collecting Hair Evidence
Information Obtained by Microscopic Comparison of Hair
Forensic Applications of Microscopy: Fibers
Natural Fibers
Synthetic Fibers
Wrap Up
Forensic Analysis of Glass
Introduction
Types of Glass
Tempered Glass
Windshield Glass
Forensic Examination of Glass Evidence: An Overview
Nonoptical Physical Properties of Glass
Surface Striations and Markings
Surface Contaminants
Thickness
Hardness
Glass Fractures
Characteristics of Glass Fractures
Forensic Examination of Glass Fractures
Glass Density Tests
Optical Physical Properties of Glass
Color
Refractive Index
Refractive Index of Tempered versus Nontempered Glass
Variations in Density and Refractive Index
Elemental Analysis of Glass
Wrap Up
Pattern Evidence
Fingerprints
Introduction
History of Fingerprinting
Characteristics of Fingerprints
Uniqueness of Fingerprints
Permanence of Fingerprints
Fingerprint Patterns
Fingerprint Identification Points
Methods for Developing Fingerprints
Recovering Fingerprints from Hard and Nonabsorbent Surfaces
Recovering Fingerprints from Soft and Porous Surfaces
Preservation of Fingerprints
Photography of Fingerprints: An Overview
Digital Imaging of Fingerprints
Classification of Fingerprints
Primary Classification
Automated Fingerprint Identification System
Fingerprints for Biometric Identification
Finger Scanning
Biometrics-Related Issues
Wrap Up
Questioned Documents
Introduction
Handwriting
Development of Handwriting
Comparison of Handwriting
Collection of Handwriting Exemplars
Signatures
Erasures, Obliterations, and Alterations
Optical Analysis of Ink
Optical Analysis of Concealed Information
Chemical Analysis of Ink
Indented Writing
Typed and Word-Processed Documents
Photocopied Documents
Paper
Nondestructive Tests for Paper
Destructive Tests for Paper
Security Printing
Currency
Canadian Currency
Identity Documents
Use of Biometrics for Identity Authentication
US-VISIT
Testimony of Document Examiners
Wrap Up
Firearms
Introduction
Firearm Accuracy
Increasing the Force of the Bullet
Improving the Rate of Firing and Firing Reliability
Handguns
Revolvers
Semiautomatic Pistols
Silencers
Submachine Guns
Rifles
Shotguns
Ammunition
Cartridges
Shotgun Ammunition
Ballistics
Collection and Preservation of Firearm Evidence
Collection and Preservation of Firearms
Serial Number Restoration
Collection and Preservation of Ammunition
Laboratory Examination of Firearm Evidence
Laboratory Examination of Fired Bullets
Automated Ballistics Comparisons
Laboratory Examination of Expended Cartridges
Wrap Up
Chemical Evidence
Inorganic Analysis: Forensic Determination of Metals and Gunshot Residue
Introduction
Elements and Compounds
Elements and Molecules
Physical Properties of Inorganic Substances
Elements and Subatomic Particles
Atomic Number
Periodic Table
Periods and Groups
Metals and Nonmetals
Analytical Techniques for the Analysis of Inorganic Materials
Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectra
Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
Forensic Determination of Metals
Atomic Spectroscopy
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy
Determining the Elemental Composition of Glass by ICP-OES
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
Gunpowder Residues
Composition of Gunshot Residue
Detection of Gunshot Residue
Greiss Test
Wrap Up
Arson
Introduction
Oxidation: The Heart of Fire
Chemical Reactions: What Makes Them Happen?
Spontaneous Reactions
Getting a Reaction Started
Factors That Influence the Intensity of a Fire
The Effect of Temperature
The Effect of Concentration
The Sequence of Events During a Fire
Incipient Stage
Free-Burning Stage
Smoldering Stage
Hydrocarbon Accelerants
Hydrocarbons
The Composition of Petroleum
Refining Petroleum
Determining the Origin and Cause of a Fire
Burn Patterns
Burn Pattern Geometry
Melting of Materials
Discolored Metals
Indicators of Arson
Charring of Floor Surfaces
Containers
Odors
Collection and Preservation of Arson Evidence
Analysis of Flammable Residue
Heated Headspace Sampling
Passive Headspace Diffusion (Charcoal Sampling)
Solid-Phase Microextraction
Gas Chromatography
Wrap Up
Drugs of Abuse
Introduction
History of Drug Regulation
Drug Control Laws
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Drug Dependence
Commonly Abused Drugs
Narcotics
Why Opiates Work
Morphine and Codeine
Heroin
Methadone
OxyContin
Hallucinogens
Marijuana
Mescaline
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Phencyclidine
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)
Depressants
Ethyl Alcohol
Barbiturates
Stimulants
Amphetamines
Cocaine
Inhalants
Club Drugs
Anabolic Steroids
Identifying Compounds in Evidence Samples Suspected of Containing Controlled Substances
Principles of Drug Analysis
Presumptive Tests
Confirmatory Tests
Tracking Drug Distribution: CISPA
Personal Testing for Drugs of Abuse
Wrap Up
Biological Evidence
Forensic Toxicology
Introduction
Postmortem Toxicology
Collection of Postmortem Specimens
Analysis of Toxicology Specimens
Interpretation of Toxicological Information
Human Performance Testing
Field Sobriety Testing
BAC Levels
Alcohol and the Law
Alcohol Metabolism
Absorption of Alcohol into the Body
Elimination of Alcohol by Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Measurement of Blood Alcohol Concentration
Estimating the BAC from Absorption-Elimination Data
Estimating the Amount of Alcohol in the Circulatory System
Breath Tests for Alcohol
Breathalyzer
Intoxilyzer
Alcosensor
Blood Tests for Alcohol
Collection and Preservation of Blood
Gas Chromatography Analysis of BAC
Noninvasive Alcohol Testing
Wrap Up
Biological Fluids: Blood, Semen, Saliva, and an Introduction to DNA
Introduction
Blood
Tests for the Presence of Blood
Presumptive Tests for Blood
Serological Tests for Blood
Serological Blood Typing
Forensic Characterization of Saliva
Forensic Characterization of Semen
Rape Evidence Collection
Principles of Paternity
Introduction to DNA
Functions of Nucleic Acids
Structure of Nucleic Acids
The Double Helix
DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes
Cell Replication
Protein Synthesis
The Genetic Code
Nuclear DNA and the Law
Mitochondrial DNA
Wrap Up
Forensic DNA Typing
Introduction
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Polymerase Chain Reaction: A DNA Copy Machine
Short Tandem Repeats
DNA Sequence Variations Among Individuals
Inheritance of Alleles
Analyzing the STR by Electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis
Capillary Electrophoresis
Multiplex DNA Analysis
Multiplexing by Size
Multiplexing by Dye Color
Multiplexing with Multiple Capillaries
Forensic STRs
CODIS
Interpretation of DNA Profiles
Simple Population Genetics
Interpreting Multiplex DNA Profiles
Paternity Testing
Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
The Y Chromosome: STRs and SNPs
Low-Copy-Number DNA Typing
Wrap Up
Terrorism
Explosives
Introduction
Explosions
Types of Explosives
Low Explosives
High Explosives
Commercial Explosives
Dynamite
Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil
Military Explosives
TNT
RDX
HMX
Improvised Explosives
Low-Explosive IEDs
High-Explosive IEDs
Initiators
Safety Fuses
Electric Matches
Detonators
Collection of Explosive-Related Evidence
Field Tests for Explosive Residue
Laboratory Analysis of Explosives and Explosive Residues
Thin-Layer Chromatography
Gas Chromatography
Infrared Tests
Analysis of Inorganic Explosive Residues
Ion Chromatography
Taggants
Wrap Up
Detecting Weapons of Mass Destruction
Introduction
Chemical Warfare Agents
Choking Agents
Blister Agents
Blood Agents
Irritating Agents
Incapacitating Agents
Nerve Agents
Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Materials
Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Materials
Point Detection Technologies
Analytical Instruments
Standoff Detectors
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Radiation
Penetrating Power and Speed of Radiation
Nuclear Reactions
Radioisotope Half-life
The Harmful Effects of Radiation on Humans
Why Is Radiation Harmful?
Factors Influencing Radiation Damage
Units of Radiation
Detection of Radiation
Biological Weapons
Government Efforts to Thwart Bioterrorism
Detection of Biological Agents
Wrap Up
Forensic Science Resources
Measurement and the International System of Units (SI)
Glossary
Index
Credits
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