Morality and Machines

ISBN-10: 0763717673
ISBN-13: 9780763717674
Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)
Authors: Stacey L. Edgar
List price: $193.95 Buy it from $12.75
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Description: Intended for science and technology students, philosophy students interested in applied ethics, and others who must deal with computers and the impact they have on our society.

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Book details

List price: $193.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 5/1/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 522
Size: 6.25" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Intended for science and technology students, philosophy students interested in applied ethics, and others who must deal with computers and the impact they have on our society.

Preface
Introduction
Computer Ethics?
Is There Really a Need for Ethics in Computing?
Endnotes
References and Recommended Readings
Ethical Foundations
Ethical Decision Making
Making Moral Decisions
Views on the Nature of Reason
The Modern View of Reason
The Ancient View of Reason
Which View of Reason Is Correct?
Is Ethics Possible?
Some Bad Reasons for Saying Ethics Has No Basis
Some More Thoughtful Defenses of Ethical Skepticism
Coda
The Search for a Basis for Ethics
Ethical Egoism
Pleasure- and Pain-Based Theories of Ethics
Classical Utilitarianism
Updated Utilitarianism
Act Utilitarianism
Rule Utilitarianism
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Intentions, Freedom, and Universality
Stoicism
The Theories of Immanuel Kant
Imperatives
Virtue Ethics
The Form of the Good
Plato and the Form of the Good
G.E. Moore and the Indefinability of the Good
Butchvarov and the Order of Goods
Conclusion
Approaching Ethical Analysis
Ethics Applied to a Computerized World
Software Piracy, Property, and Protection
A Brief History of Hardware
A Brief History of Software
Euclidean Algorithm for Greatest Common Divisor
Software Piracy
What Is Software Piracy?
How Can Software Rights Be Protected?
Arguments for Private Property
Arguments against Private Property
Intellectual Property
Software Protection
Trade Secrets
Trademarks
Copyrights
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Licensing and Copyprotection
Patents
The Opposition to Legal Protection of Software
What Is Reasonable and Fair?
New Issues Raised by the Internet
Computer Crime
Kinds of Computer Crime
Crimes against Computers
Damage to Computers
Crimes Using Computers
Embezzlement by Computer
Theft of Services
Theft of Information
Fraud
Organized ("Mob") Computer Crime
Counterfeiting
Computer Crime Victims
Computer Criminals
Computer Crime Stoppers
Failure to Report Computer Crimes
The European Cybercrime Treaty
Observations
Computer Intruders, Viruses, and All That
More Ways to Steal Using Computers
Thefts of Money
Roundoff Errors
The Salami Technique
Rounded-Down Bank Interest
Breaking In and Entering
Phreaking Then and Now
Tampering with Communication Signals
A "Hacker" by Any Other Name
The Original, "Good" Hackers
The New Breed of Destructive Hackers
Scanning
Cracking Passwords
Espionage
Other Methods of Illegal Access
Potentially Destructive Activities
Vengeance Is the Computer's
Trojan Horse
The Christmas Tree Trojan Horse
The Cookie Monster
The "Twelve Tricks Trojan" Horse
The AIDS Virus (Trojan Horse)
The Burleson Blackmail
Other "Bombs"
Worms
More and More Worms
Virus
Brain Virus
Lehigh Virus
The Israeli Virus
The Malta Disk Destroyer
The Ping-Pong Virus
The Datacrime Virus
The Bulgarian Dark Avenger
The Michelangelo Virus
Macintosh Viruses
The Health-Care Plan Virus
Operation Moon Angel
Kevin Mitnick
Melissa Virus
Chernobyl Virus
The Love Bug
Viruses Make It to the Big Screen
Misuse of the (Electronic) Mail
Is Hacking Moral, Value-Neutral, or Bad?
Hacking as Civil Disobedience
The Sorcerer's Apprentice
What Is to Be Done?
Privacy
Why Is Privacy of Value?
"I'll Be Watching You"
Some Noteworthy Violations of Privacy Involving Computers
A National Computerized Criminal History System?
The FBI Wiretap Law
The Clipper Chip Proposal
Computerized Credit
Caller ID
Computer Matching
How the Internet Complicates Privacy Considerations
Cookies
Communications Decency Act (CDA) and CDA II (COPA)
Carnivore
The Worst Scenario
What Protections Are There for Privacy?
Warren and Brandeis Make a Case for Privacy
Existing Privacy Legislation
The Importance of Privacy
Errors and Reliability
Errors
Some Noteworthy Computer-Related Errors
Defense
Space Exploration
Commercial Airlines
Medical Risks
Robot Errors and Robots as Threats
Nuclear Energy Threats
Computerized Translation
Mistaken Identities
Billing and Record-Keeping Errors
Automatic Payments
More "Dead Souls in the Computer"
Military Dangers
"Surplus" Computers Sold with Sensitive Information Still in Them
Miscellaneous Computer-Related Errors
Two More Software Fiascos
Y2K Bugs
Follow-up
Reliability
Program Verification
Software Engineering
Program Testing
Structured Walkthroughs
When All Is Said and Done
Observation
The Computer World of Work
The Control Revolution
Evolution of Systems
Three Functions of DNA
The Industrial Revolution Crisis of Control
Data Processing and an Information Bureaucracy
Information Theory and Communication
Levels of Problems in Communication
The Information Workplace
Loss of Jobs, or Just Relocation?
The End of Work?
"Technostress"?
"Technomalady"?
Job Monitoring
Women in the Computer Workplace
Does Gender Matter in Computing?
Increased Access for Disabled Workers
Telecommuting
Changing Job Panorama
Employees and Employers
Loyalty
Whistle-Blowing
Who Owns Your Ideas?
Responsibility, Liability, Law, and Professional Ethics
Responsibility
Liability
Computers and the Law
Professional Ethics
Professional Codes of Ethics
What About Microsoft?
Are Science and Technology Morally Neutral?
Computers, the Government, and the Military
Information and Power
Big Government
Record-Keeping and Surveillance
Government Applications of Computers
The National Security Agency
Other Agency Restrictions on Freedoms
Blame the Computer!
Big Business Influences Big Government
Environmental Impact of Computers
Centralization Versus Decentralization of the Government
The Information Superhighway
Goals
A Comparison of Concrete and Electronic Highways
The Vision of the Government for NII
Manufacturing and Commerce
Health Care
Education
Environment
Libraries
Some Dissenting Voices
Nuclear Threats
Computers and Nuclear Power
Computers and the Military
Simulations
"War Games"
False Alarms
"Star Wars" by Any Other Name
The Artificial Intelligensia and Virtual Worlds
Artificial Intelligence--Some General Background
Expert Systems
Game-Playing
Theorem-Proving
The Turing Test
The Imitation Game
Objections
ELIZA
The Chinese Room
Artificial Intelligence and Ethics
Consciousness
Kurzweil's "Age of Spiritual Machines"
Hawking's Perspective
The Eco-Computer
Cybersex
Virtual Worlds
Virtual Reality
Appendix A
Paper #1--Computer Ethics
Computer Ethics Term Paper Topics
Directions for Students
Appendix B
ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
General Moral Imperatives
More Specific Professional Responsibilities
Organizational Leadership Imperatives
Compliance with the Code
Appendix C
IEEE Code of Ethics
Bibliography
Index

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