Participant Observation A Guide for Fieldworkers

ISBN-10: 0759119279
ISBN-13: 9780759119277
Edition: 2nd 2011
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Description: Qualitative research in such diverse areas as sociology, education, nursing, and medical research draws on the insights gained through the use of participant observation for gaining greater understanding of phenomena from the point of view of  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: AltaMira Press
Publication date: 12/16/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 266
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Qualitative research in such diverse areas as sociology, education, nursing, and medical research draws on the insights gained through the use of participant observation for gaining greater understanding of phenomena from the point of view of participants. This book serves as a basic primer for the beginning researcher and as a useful reference and guide for experienced researchers who wish to re-examine their own skills and abilities in light of best practices of participant observation.

Preface
What is Participant Observation?
The Method of Participant Observation
History of the Method
Why Participant Observation Is Important
Enhancing the Quality of Data Collection and Analysis
Formulating New Research Questions
Notes
Learning to be a Participant Observer: Theoretical Issues
Learning To Be a Participant Observer
Observation and Participation
Participation and Observation: An Oxymoron in Action?
What Determines the Role a Researcher Will Adopt?
Limits to Participation?
Beyond the Reflexivity Frontier
Participant Observation on the Fast Track
Notes
Doing Participant Observation: Becoming a Participant
Entering the Field
First Contact
Establishing Rapport
Breaking Through
Talking the Talk
Walking the Walk
Making Mistakes
Notes
The Costs of Participation: Culture Shock
Coping with Culture Shock
Participating and Parenting: Children and Field Research
Reverse Culture Shock (Reentry Shock)
Note
Doing Participant Observation: Becoming an Observer
The Role of Theory and Conceptual Frameworks
Taking the Observer Role
Attending to Detail: Mapping the Scene
(Participatory) Community Mapping
Counting
Attending to Conversation
Field Notes as a Training Tool for Observation
Seeing Old Events with New Eyes
Practicing and Improving Observation and Memory
What to Observe
Just Experiencing
Limits to Observation
Ethnographer Bias
Notes
Gender an Sex Issues in Participant Observation
The Gendered Ethnographer
Up Close and Personal: Sex in the Field
Note
Designing Research with Participant Observation
Participant Observation and Research Design
Fundamentals of Design of Participant Observation
Objectivity
Reliability
Elements of Design
Choosing a Question
Appropriate Questions
Choosing a Site
Appropriate Methods and the Benefits of Triangulation
Enhancing Representativeness: Sampling in Participant Observation
Proposing Participant Observation
Research Objectives
Notes
Informal Interviewing in Participant Observation
Types of Interviews
Interview Techniques
Active Listening
Sensitive Silence
The Uh-huh Prompt
Repetition Feedback
Summary Feedback
Asking Questions in Interviewing
Tell Me More
For Clarification
Na�ve Questions
Avoiding Confrontation
Changing Topics
Talking About Sensitive Subjects
Concluding an Interview
Notes
Writing Field Notes
History
Kinds of Field Notes
Jot Notes
Expanded Notes: Field Notes Proper
Methodological Notes
Diaries and Journals
Logs
Meta-notes/Analytic Notes
Headnotes
Field Notes in Virtual Research
How to Record
Research Integrity: Who Owns the Field Notes
Notes
Analyzing Field Notes
Process of Data Analysis
Managing Qualitative Data
Data Reduction
Approaches to Indexing
Coding for Themes
Coding for Characteristics
Managing Coding and Indexing
Word Searches
Data Display
Quotes
Vignettes and Cases
Tables and Matrices
Charts
Decision Modeling
Interpretation and Verification
Audit Trails
Writing Up
Notes
Ethical Concerns in Participant Observation
Need for Competency
The Meaning of Informed Consent in Participant Observation
Right to Privacy
Ethical Conduct of Participant Observation in Online Settings
Ethical Publication
Relationships
Ethics and the Limits to Participation
Note
Appendix: Sample Field Notes from Three Projects
Bibliography
Index
About the Authors

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