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Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology An Interdisciplinary Approach

ISBN-10: 074256441X
ISBN-13: 9780742564411
Edition: 2010
List price: $69.00 Buy it from $28.48 Rent it from $21.48
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Book details

List price: $69.00
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/16/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Lee Ellis received his Ph.D. from Florida State University, Tallahassee, and is a professor in the Department of Sociology at Minot State University. Main courses taught by Dr. Ellis include social research methods, criminology, social stratification, anthropology, and sociobiology.

List of Tables and Figures
Preface
Getting Started
The Scientific Method and Criminal Justice and Criminology Social Sciences
Learning to Become a Researcher
Circumscribing Criminal Justice and Criminology
Circumscribing the Other Social and Behavioral Sciences
The Near Social Sciences
Other Disciplines that Utilize Social Science Research Methods
Features of the Scientific Methods
The Scientific Spirit
Types of Questions Addressed by Social Scientists
Varied Adherence to the Scientific Method
Summary
Formulating Scientific Questions and Locating Background Research
The Nature of Scientific Variables
Conceptual Versus Operational Definitions of Variables
Levels of Measurement
Formulating and Refining Scientific Questions
Locating Information on Topics of Interest
How to Get Copies of Articles of Interest
Distinctiveness of Scientific Communication
How Scientific Research Gets Reviewed and Sometimes Published
Summary
Suggested Readings
The Importance of Statistics
Univariate Statistics and the Concept of Statistical Significance
The Nature of Univariate Statistical Concepts
Averages
Dispersion
Illustrating the Concepts of Averages and Dispersions
Building the Concept of Statistical Significance
Hypothesis Testing and the Concept of the Null Hypothesis
Inferential Statistics
Closing Remarks about Statistical Significance and Inferential Statistics
Summary
Suggested Readings
Bivariate and Multivariate Statistics: The Concept of Correlation
Background
Constructing Scattergrams
Curvilenear Versus Linear Correlations
Interpreting Statements about the Strength of Correlations
Variability and Correlations
The Statistical Significance of Correlation Coefficients
Interpreting Two Studies Based on Correlation
Correlation Does Not Equal Causation: Words of Caution
Reflections on the Importance of Statistics in the Research Process
Multivariate Statistics: When Bivariate Statistics Are Not Enough
Closing Comments on Multivariate Statistics
Summary
Suggested Readings
Documentation and Measurement
Research Report Structure and Styles for Citing and Referencing
The Basic Format for a Research Report
Identifying the Parts of a Research Report
Citation and Referencing Styles
Summary
Suggested Readings
Reliability, Validity, and Precision in Measurement
Handedness as an Example of Problems in Measurement
Three Aspects of Accurate Measurement
Reliability
Validity
Precision
Factors Analysis for Refining Measurement Accuracy
Some Closing Remarks about Reliability, Validity, and Precision
Summary
Suggested Readings
Selecting and Retaining Those to Be Studied
Surveying and Sampling
The Nature of Scientific Surveys
Basic Terminology
Representative Versus Nonrepresentative Samples
Probability Versus Non-Probability Sampling Methods
Sample Size
Surveying Over Time
Summary
Suggested Readings
The Human Side of Sampling and the Reliability of Self-Reports
People's Willingness to Serve as Research Subjects
Assessing the Extent and Causes of Sample Attrition
New Computer-Assisted "Interviewing"
Limiting Sample Attrition
Inaccuracies in Self-Reports
Techniques for Minimizing and Detecting Subject Dishonesty
Interviews as Social Activity
Summary
Suggested Readings
Types of Social Science Data
Data Based on Self-Reports: Guidelines for Constructing Questionnaires
Basic Terminology
Advantages and Disadvantages of Data Based on Self-Reports
Response Options for Questions
Deciding Which Response Option to Use
Types of Self-Reported Items
Guidelines for Item Construction
Clustering Items with Similar Formats
Types of Questions to Avoid
Examples of Poorly Phrased Questions
Combining Two or More Items to Improve Reliability
Time Diaries: A Special Type of Questionnaire
Computerized Questionnaires and Use of the Internet
Final Comments on Questionnaire Data
Summary
Suggested Readings
Direct Observations: Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Qualitative Direct Observations
Participant Observations
Ethnographic Observations
Case Studies
Focus Group Research
Archaeological Data
Procedures in Ethnographic and Participant Observation Data Collection
Quantitative Direct Observations
Laboratory and Clinical Observations
Field Research
Direct Observations among Nonhuman Animals
Content Analysis
Closing Comments on Direct Observations
Summary
Suggested Readings
Archival Data Analysis and Meta-Analysis
Units of Analysis
Archival Data
Analyzing Cross-Cultural Atlases
Review Articles and Meta-Analyses
Summary
Suggested Readings
Measuring Crime and Criminality
Categorizing and Measuring Crime
The Uniform Crime Reports: Counting Crime Officially
Crime Victimization Survey Data
Self-Reported Crime Surveys
What Can We Conclude about the Three Main Measures of Crime in America?
Summary
Suggested Readings
Probing for Causal Explanations
Theories, Models, Hypotheses, and Empirical Reality
The Concept of Causation
The Nature of Scientific Theorizing
Criteria for Assessing the Elegance of a Scientific Theory
How Theories Fit into the Research Process
Scientific Models
Scientific Laws
Scientific Paradigms
Hypothesis Testing and Attempts to Generalize
Closing Remarks Regarding Scientific Theorizing
Summary
Suggested Readings
Controlled Experimentation
Basic Experimental Terminology
Main Types of Experimental Designs
Pitfalls with Human Experimentation
Shortcomings of Experimental Research
Summary
Suggested Readings
Quasi-Experimentation
Quasi-Experiments Compared with Controlled Experiments
Quasi-Experimental Designs in the Narrower Sense
Quasi-Experimental Designs in the Broader Sense
Quasi-Experimental Designs for Addressing Nature-Nurture Issues
Summary
Suggested Readings
Avoiding Harm and Doing Good
Ethical Issues in Social and Behavioral Science Research
Responsibilities to Research Subjects
Responsibilities to Fellow Social and Behavioral Scientists
Responsibilities to Humanity
Summary
Suggested Readings
Evaluation and Other Applied Research
Conceptualizing Evaluation Research
Terminology Surrounding Evaluation Research
History of Evaluation Research
Types of Programs Evaluated
Locating Reports of Evaluation Research
Program Evaluation: Doing It Right
Program Evaluation: A Source of Tension
Closing Thoughts about Evaluation Research
Summary
Suggested Readings
Epilogue
The American Psychological Association Referencing Style
APA Referencing Format for Articles
APA Referencing Format for Books
APA Referencing Format for Chapters in Edited Books
Guidelines and Recommendations for Preparing Research Reports
Overall Format and Style of a Research Manuscript
The Basic Format for the Initial Pages
The Body of the Manuscript
What Follows the Body of a Research Manuscript?
Tailoring a Research Manuscript for a Specific Journal
Suggested Readings
Guidelines for Professional Writing in the Social and Behavioral Sciences
Special Comments on Citing and Typing
Suggested Readings
Notes
References
Index
About the Authors

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