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Preface | |

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Notes on the Fourth Edition | |

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Introduction | |

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Some Definitions | |

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The Development of Biometry | |

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The Statistical Frame of Mind | |

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Data in Biology | |

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Samples and Populations | |

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Variables in Biology | |

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Accuracy and Precision of Data | |

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Derived Variables | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Computers and Data Analysis | |

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Computers | |

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Software | |

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Efficiency and Economy in Data Processing | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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The Arithmetic Mean | |

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Other Means | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Sample Statistics and Parameters | |

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The Range | |

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The Standard Deviation | |

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Coding Data Before Computation | |

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The Coefficient of Variation | |

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Introduction to Probability Distributions: Binomial and Poisson | |

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Probability, Random Sampling, and Hypothesis Testing | |

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The Binomial Distribution | |

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The Poisson Distribution | |

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Other Discrete Probability Distributions | |

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The Normal Probability Distribution | |

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Frequency Distributions of Continuous Variables | |

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Properties of the Normal Distribution | |

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A Model for the Normal Distribution | |

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Applications of the Normal Distribution | |

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Fitting a Normal Distribution to Observed Data | |

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Skewness and Kurtosis | |

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Graphic Methods | |

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Other Continuous Distributions | |

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Hypothesis Testing and Interval Estimation | |

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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing: Randomization Approaches | |

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Distribution and Variance of Means | |

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Distribution and Variance of Other Statistics | |

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The t-Distribution | |

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More on Hypothesis Testing: Normally Distributed Data | |

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Power of a Test | |

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Tests of Simple Hypotheses Using the Normal and f-Distributions | |

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The Chi-Square Distribution | |

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Testing the Hypothesis H<sub>0</sub>: ï¿½<sup>2</sup> = ï¿½<sup>2</sup><sub>0</sub> | |

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Introduction to Interval Estimation (Confidence Limits) | |

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Confidence Limits Using Sample Standard Deviations | |

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Confidence Limits for Variances | |

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The Jackknife and the Bootstrap | |

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Introduction to Analysis of Variance | |

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Variances of Samples and Their Means | |

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TheF-Distribution | |

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The Hypothesis H<sub>0</sub>: ï¿½<sup>2</sup><sub>1</sub> = ï¿½<sup>2</sup><sub>2</sub> | |

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Heterogeneity Among Sample Means | |

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Partitioning the Total Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom | |

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Model I Anova | |

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Model II Anova | |

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Single-Classification Analysis of Variance | |

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Computational Formulas | |

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General Case: Unequal and Equal n | |

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Special Case: Two Groups | |

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Comparisons Among Means in a Model I Anova: Essential Background | |

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Comparisons Among Means: Special Methods | |

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Nested Analysis of Variance | |

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Nested Anova: Design | |

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Nested Anova: Computation | |

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Nested Anovas with Unequal Sample Sizes | |

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Two-Way and Multiway Analysis of Variance | |

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Two-Way Anova: Design | |

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Two-Way Anova with Equal Replication: Computation | |

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Two-Way Anova: Hypothesis Testing | |

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Two-Way Anova Without Replication | |

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Paired Comparisons | |

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The Factorial Design | |

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A Three-Way Factorial Design | |

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Higher-Order Factorial Anovas | |

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Other Designs | |

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Anova by Computer | |

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Statistical Power and Sample Size in the Analysis of Variance | |

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Effect Size | |

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Noncentral t- and F-Distributions and Confidence Limits for Effect Sizes | |

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Power in an Anova | |

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Sample Size in an Anova | |

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Minimum Detectable Difference | |

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Post Hoc Power Analysis | |

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Optimal Allocation of Resources in a Nested Design | |

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Randomized Blocks and Other Two-Way and Multiway Designs | |

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Assumptions of Analysis of Variance | |

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A Fundamental Assumption | |

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Independence | |

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Homogeneity of Variances | |

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Normality | |

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Transformations | |

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The Logarithmic Transformation | |

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The Square Root Transformation | |

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The Box-Cox Transformation | |

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The Arcsine Transformation | |

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Nonparametric Methods in Lieu of Single-Classification Anova | |

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Nonparametric Methods in Lieu of Two-Way Anova | |

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Linear Regression | |

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Introduction to Regression | |

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Models in Regression | |

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The Linear Regression Equation | |

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Hypothesis Testing in Regression | |

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More Than One Value of Y for Each Value of X | |

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The Uses of Regression | |

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Estimating X From Y | |

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Comparing Two Regression Lines | |

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Linear Comparisons in Anovas | |

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Examining Residuals and Transformations in Regression | |

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Nonparametric Tests for Regression | |

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Model II Regression | |

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Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size in Regression | |

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Correlation | |

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Correlation Versus Regression | |

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The Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | |

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Computing the Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | |

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The Variance of Sums and Differences | |

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Hypothesis Tests for Correlations | |

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Applications of Correlation | |

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Nonparametric Tests for Association | |

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Major Axes and Confidence Regions | |

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Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size | |

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Multiple and Curvilinear Regression | |

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Multiple Regression: Computation | |

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Multiple Regression: Hypothesis Tests | |

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Path Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling | |

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Partial and Multiple Correlation | |

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Selection of Independent Variables | |

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Computation of Multiple Regression by Matrix Methods | |

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Solving Anovas as Regression Problems: General Linear Models | |

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Analysis of Covariance (Ancova) | |

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Curvilinear Regression | |

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Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size in Multiple Regression | |

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Advanced Topics in Regression and Correlation | |

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Analysis of Frequencies | |

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Introduction to Tests for Goodness of Fit | |

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Single-Classification Tests for Goodness of Fit | |

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Replicated Tests of Goodness of Fit | |

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Tests of Independence: Two-Way Tables | |

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Analysis of Three-Way Tables | |

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Analysis of Proportions | |

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Randomized Blocks for Frequency Data | |

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Effect Sizes, Power, and Sample Sizes | |

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Meta-Analysis and Miscellaneous Methods | |

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Synthesis of Prior Research Results: Meta-Analysis | |

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Tests for Randomness of Nominal Data: Runs Tests | |

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Isotonic Regression | |

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Application of Randomization Tests to Unconventional Statistics | |

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The Mantel Test of Association Between Two Distance Matrices | |

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The Future of Biometry: Data Analysis | |

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Appendices | |

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Mathematical Proofs | |

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Introduction to Matrices | |

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Bibliography | |

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Author Index | |

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Subject Index | |