Introduction to Brain and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0716711877
ISBN-13: 9780716711872
Edition: 2nd 2004
List price: $135.95
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Description: Drawing on their extensive experience in teaching and research, the authors explore the biological basis of behavior, whilst emphasising clinical aspects of neuroscience and reinforcing its relationship to the human experience.

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Book details

List price: $135.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Worth Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/1/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 608
Size: 9.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 4.224
Language: English

Drawing on their extensive experience in teaching and research, the authors explore the biological basis of behavior, whilst emphasising clinical aspects of neuroscience and reinforcing its relationship to the human experience.

Preface
What Are the Origins of Brain and Behavior?
Focus on Disorders: Traumatic Brain Injury
Why Study Brain and Behavior?
Focus on Disorders: Linking Brain Function to Brain Injury
What Is the Brain?
Gross Structure of the Nervous System
What Is Behavior?
Perspectives on Brain and Behavior
Aristotle and Mentalism
Descartes and Dualism
Focus on New Research: The Origins of Spoken Language
Darwin and Materialism
Evolution of Brain and Behavior
Origin of Brain Cells and Brains
Classification of Life
Evolution of Animals with Nervous Systems
The Chordate Nervous System
Human Evolution
Humans: Members of the Primate Order
Australopithecus: Our Distant Ancestor
The First Humans
Evolution of the Human Brain
Brain Size and Behavior
Why the Hominid Brain Enlarged
Studying Brain and Behavior in Modern Humans
Fallacies of Human Brain-Size Comparisons
Culture
Focus on Disorders: Learning Disabilities
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Does the Nervous System Function?
Focus on New Research: Optimizing Connections in the Brain
An Overview of Brain Function and Structure
The Brain's Primary Functions
Basic Brain Terminology
The Brain's Surface Features
Focus on Disorders: Meningitis and Encephalitis
The Brain's Internal Features
Focus on Disorders: Stroke
Microscopic Inspection: Cells and Fibers
Neuroanatomy and Functional Organization of the Nervous System
Evolutionary Development of the Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
The Somatic Nervous System
Focus on Disorders: Magendie, Bell, and Bell's Palsy
The Autonomic Nervous System
Eight Principles of Nervous System Function
The Sequence of Brain Processing Is "In to Integrate to Out"
Sensory and Motor Divisions Exist Throughout the Nervous System
Many of the Brain's Circuits Are Crossed
The Brain Is Both Symmetrical and Asymmetrical
The Nervous System Works Through Excitation and Inhibition
The Central Nervous System Functions on Multiple Levels
Brain Systems Are Organized Both Hierarchically and in Parallel
Functions in the Brain Are Both Localized and Distributed
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
What Are the Units of Nervous System Function?
Focus on New Research: Programming Behavior
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons
Glial Cells
Focus on Disorders: Brain Tumors
Focus on Disorders: Multiple Sclerosis
Internal Structure of a Cell
Elements and Atoms
Molecules
Parts of a Cell
Genes, Cells, and Behavior
Chromosomes and Genes
Focus on New Research: Knocking out Genes
Genotype and Phenotype
Dominant and Recessive Alleles
Genetic Mutations
Mendel's Principles Apply to Genetic Disorders
Chromosome Abnormalities
Focus on Disorders: Huntington's Chorea
Genetic Engineering
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do Neurons Transmit Information?
Focus on Disorders: Epilepsy
Electricity and Neurons
Early Clues to Electrical Activity in the Nervous System
Modern Tools for Measuring a Neuron's Electrical Activity
How the Movement of Ions Creates Electrical Charges
Electrical Activity of a Membrane
Resting Potential
Graded Potentials
The Action Potential
Focus on New Research: Opening the Voltage-Sensitive Gates
The Nerve Impulse
Saltatory Conduction and Myelin Sheaths
How Neurons Integrate Information
Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
Focus on Disorders: Myasthenia Gravis
Summation of Inputs
The Axon Hillock
Into the Nervous System and Back Out
How Sensory Stimuli Produce Action Potentials
How Nerve Impulses Produce Movement
Focus on Disorders: Lou Gehrig's Disease
Studying the Brain's Electrical Activity
Single-Cell Recordings
EEG Recordings
Event-Related Potentials
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do Neurons Communicate and Adapt?
Focus on Classic Research: The Basis of Neural Communication in a Heartbeat
A Chemical Message
Structure of Synapses
Focus on Disorders: Parkinson's Disease
Neurotransmission in Fours Steps
Varieties of Synapses
Excitatory and Inhibitory Messages
Evolution of Complex Neurotransmission Systems
Varieties of Neurotransmitters
Identifying Neurotransmitters
Classifying Neurotransmitters
Focus on Disorders: Awakening with L-Dopa
Receptors for Direct and Indirect Effects
Neurotransmitter Systems and Behavior
Neurotransmission in the Somatic Nervous System
Neurotransmission in the Autonomic Nervous System
Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System
Focus on Disorders: The Case of the Frozen Addict
Role of Synapses in Learning and Memory
Habituation Response
Sensitization Response
Long-Term Potentiation and Associative Learning
Learning at the Synapse
Focus on New Research: Dendritic Spines, Small but Mighty
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Does the Brain Develop and Adapt?
Focus on Comparative Biology: Metamorphosis
Perspectives on Brain Development
Mr. Higgins Builds a House
Linking Brain and Behavioral Development
Neurobiology of Development
Gross Development of the Human Nervous System
Origins of Neurons and Glia
Growth and Development of Neurons
Focus on Disorders: Cerebral Palsy
Glial Development
Correlating Behavior with Brain Development
Motor Behaviors
Language Development
Development of Problem-Solving Ability
A Caution about Linking Correlation to Causation
Brain Development and the Environment
Experience and Cortical Organization
Experience and Neural Connectivity
Critical Periods for Experience and Brain Development
Abnormal Experience and Brain Development
Focus on Disorders: Romanian Orphans
Hormones and Brain Development
Focus on New Research: Hormones and the Range of a Behavior
Injury and Brain Development
Drugs and Brain Development
Other Kinds of Abnormal Brain Development
Mental Retardation
Focus on Disorders: Schizophrenia
How Do Any of Us Develop a Normal Brain?
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do Drugs and Hormones Influence the Brain and Behavior?
Focus on New Research: The Neural Basis of Drug Cravings
The Domoic Acid Mystery
Principles of Psychopharmacology
Drug Routes into the Nervous System
Individual Differences in Response to Psychoactive Drugs
Drug Action at Synapses: Agonists and Antagonists
An Acetylcholine Synapse: Examples of Drug Action
Classification of Psychoactive Drugs
Antianxiety Agents and Sedative Hypnotics
Focus on Disorders: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Antipsychotic Agents
Antidepressants
Narcotic Analgesics
Focus on Disorders: Major Depression
Stimulants
Drugs, Experience, Context, and Genes
Tolerance
Sensitization
Addiction and Dependence
Explaining Drug Abuse
Behavior on Drugs
Why Doesn't Everyone Abuse Drugs?
Can Drugs Cause Brain Damage?
Focus on Disorders: Drug-Induced Psychosis
Hormones
Hierarchical Control of Hormones
Homeostatic Hormones
Gonadal Hormones
Stress Hormones
Ending a Stress Response
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do We Sense, Perceive, and See the World?
Focus on Disorders: Migraines and a Case of Blindsight
The Nature of Sensation and Perception
Sensory Experience and Sensory Reality
Focus on New Research: Testing Vision in Nonhuman Subjects
Analyzing Sensory Information
Anatomy of the Visual System
Light: The Stimulus for Vision
Structure of the Eye
Focus on Disorders: Optical Errors of Refraction and Visual Illuminance
Photoreceptors
Retinal-Neuron Types
Visual Pathways
Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams
Location in the Visual World
Coding Location in the Retina
Location in the LGN and Cortical Region V1
The Visual Corpus Callosum
Neural Activity
Seeing Shape
Seeing Color
Neural Activity in the Dorsal Stream
The Visual Brain in Action
Injury to the Visual Pathway Leading to the Cortex
Injury to the "What" Pathway
Focus on Disorders: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Injury to the "How" Pathway
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do We Hear, Speak, and Make Music?
Focus on New Research: The Evolution of Language and Music
Sound Waves: The Stimulus for Audition
Physical Properties of Sound Waves
Perception of Sound
Properties of Language and Music As Sounds
Anatomy of the Auditory System
Structure of the Ear
Auditory Receptors
Pathways to the Auditory Cortex
Auditory Cortex
Neural Activity and Hearing
Hearing Pitch
Detecting Loudness
Detecting Location
Detecting Patterns in Sound
Anatomy of Language and Music
Processing Language
Focus on Disorders: Left-Hemisphere Dysfunction
Focus on Disorders: Arteriovenous Malformations
Processing Music
Focus on Disorders: Cerebral Aneurysms
Auditory Communication in Nonhuman Species
Birdsong
Echolocation in Bats
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Does the Nervous System Respond to Stimulation and Produce Movement?
Focus on Comparative Biology: Portrait of an Artist
Hierarchical Control of Movement
The Forebrain and Initiating Movement
The Brainstem and Species-Typical Movement
The Spinal Cord and Executing Movement
Focus on Disorders: Autism
Focus on Disorders: Spinal-Cord Injury
Organization of the Motor System
The Motor Cortex
Corticospinal Tracts
Motor Neurons
Control of Muscles
The Motor Cortex and Skilled Movements
Investigating Neural Control of Skilled Movements
Control of Skilled Movements in Nonhuman Species
How Motor-Cortex Damage Affects Skilled Movements
The Basal Ganglia and the Cerebellum
The Basal Ganglia and Movement Force
Focus on Disorders: Tourette's Syndrome
The Cerebellum and Movement Skill
Organization of the Somatosensory System
Somatosensory Receptors and Perception
Dorsal-Root Ganglion Neurons
Somatosensory Pathways to the Brain
Spinal Reflexes
Feeling and Treating Pain
The Vestibular System and Balance
Exploring the Somatosensory Cortex
The Somatosensory Homunculus
Focus on New Research: Tickling
Effects of Damage to the Somatosensory Cortex
The Somatosensory Cortex and Complex Movement
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
What Causes Emotional and Motivated Behavior?
Focus on New Research: The Pain of Rejection
Identifying the Causes of Behavior
Behavior for Brain Maintenance
Drives and Behavior
Neural Circuits and Behavior
The Nature of Behavior: Why Cats Kill Birds
Biology, Evolution, and Environment
Evolutionary Influences on Behavior
The Chemical Senses
Environmental Influences on Behavior
Inferring Purpose in Behavior: To Know a Fly
Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior
Regulatory and Nonregulatory Behavior
The Hypothalamic Circuit's Regulatory Function
The Limbic Circuit's Organizing Function
The Frontal Lobes' Executive Function
Focus on Disorders: Agenesis of the Frontal Lobe
Stimulating Emotion
The Amygdala and Emotional Behavior
The Prefrontal Cortex and Emotional Behavior
Emotional Disorders
Focus on Disorders: Anxiety Disorders
Control of Regulatory Behavior
Controlling Eating
Focus on Disorders: Weight-Loss Strategies
Controlling Drinking
Control of Nonregulatory Behavior
Effects of Sex Hormones on the Brain
Focus on Disorders: Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome and the Androgenital Syndrome
The Hypothalamus, the Amygdala, and Sexual Behavior
Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, and Brain Organization
Cognitive Influences on Sexual Behavior
Reward
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
Why Do We Sleep and Dream?
Focus on Comparative Biology: The Variety of Biological Rhythms
A Clock for All Seasons
Origins of Biological Rhythms
Biological Clocks
Biological Rhythms
Free-Running Rhythms
Zeitgebers
Focus on Disorders: Seasonal Affective Disorder
Neural Basis of the Biological Clock
Suprachiasmatic Rhythms
Evidence for Dual Clocks
Immortal Time
What Ticks?
Pacemaking Circadian Rhythms
Focus on New Research: Synchronizing Biorhythms at the Molecular Level
Pacemaking Circannual Rhythms
Sleep Stages and Dreaming
Measuring How Long We Sleep
Measuring Sleep in the Laboratory
A Typical Night's Sleep
Non-REM Sleep
Focus on Disorders: Restless Legs Syndrome
REM Sleep and Dreaming
What We Dream About
What Does Sleep Accomplish?
Sleep As a Passive Process
Sleep As a Biological Adaptation
Sleep As a Restorative Process
Sleep and Memory Storage
Neural Basis of Sleep
Reticular Activating System and Sleep
Neural Basis of the EEG Changes Associated with Waking
Neural Basis of REM Sleep
Sleep Disorders
Disorders of Non-REM Sleep
Focus on Disorders: Sleep Apnea
Disorders of REM Sleep
Sleep and Consciousness
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Do We Learn and Remember?
Focus on New Research: Movement, Learning, and Neuroplasticity
Connecting Learning and Memory
Studying Learning and Memory in the Laboratory
Two Categories of Memory
What Makes Explicit and Implicit Memory Different?
What Is Special about Personal Memories?
Dissociating Memory Circuits
Focus on Disorders: Patient Boswell's Amnesia
Neural Systems Underlying Explicit and Implicit Memories
Neural Circuit for Explicit Memories
Focus on Disorders: Alzheimer's Disease
Neural Circuit for Implicit Memories
Focus on Disorders: Korsakoff's Syndrome
Neural Circuit for Emotional Memories
Structural Basis of Brain Plasticity
Measuring Synaptic Change
Enriched Experience and Plasticity
Sensory or Motor Training and Plasticity
Plasticity, Hormones, Trophic Factors, and Drugs
Recovery from Brain Injury
Donna's Experience with Brain Injury
Three-Legged Cat Solution
New-Circuit Solution
Lost-Neuron-Replacement Solution
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
How Does the Brain Think?
Focus on Comparative Biology: Animal Intelligence
The Nature of Thought
Characteristics of Human Thought
The Neural Unit of Thought
Cognition and the Association Cortex
Knowledge about Objects
Spatial Cognition
Attention
Focus on New Research: Pay Attention!
Planning
Imitation and Understanding
Studying the Human Brain and Cognition
Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience
Focus on Disorders: Neuropsychological Assessment
The Power of Cognitive Neuroscientific Analysis
Cerebral Asymmetry in Thinking
Anatomical Asymmetry
Functional Asymmetry in Neurological Patients
Functional Asymmetry in the Normal Brain
The Split Brain
Explaining Cerebral Asymmetry
The Left Hemisphere, Language, and Thought
Variations in Cognitive Organization
Sex Differences in Cognitive Organization
Handedness and Cognitive Organization
Synesthesia
Focus on Disorders: The Sodium Amobarbital Test
Focus on Disorders: A Case of Synesthesia
Intelligence
The Concept of General Intelligence
Multiple Intelligences
Divergent and Convergent Intelligence
Intelligence, Heredity, Environment, and the Synapse
Consciousness
Why Are We Conscious?
What Is the Neural Basis of Consciousness?
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
What Happens When the Brain Misbehaves?
Focus on New Research: Neuropsychoanalysis
Research on Brain and Behavioral Disorders
Multidisciplinary Research Methods
Causes of Abnormal Behavior
Investigating the Neurobiology of Behavior Disorders
Classifying and Treating Brain and Behavioral Disorders
Identifying and Classifying Mental Disorders
Treatments for Disorders
Focus on New Research: Treating Behavioral Disorders with TMS
Understanding and Treating Neurological Disorders
Traumatic Brain Injury
Stroke
Epilepsy
Multiple Sclerosis
Neurodegenerative Disorders
Are Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Aspects of One Disease?
Understanding and Treating Psychiatric Disorders
Psychotic Disorders
Mood Disorders
Focus on New Research: Antidepressant Action in Neurogenesis
Anxiety Disorders
Is Misbehavior Always Bad?
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
For Further Thought
Recommended Reading
Epilogue: What Have We Learned and What Is Its Value?
Neuroscience in an Evolutionary Context
Revisiting the Principles of Nervous System Function
Information-Processing Sequence in the Brain Is "In to Integrate to Out"
Sensory and Motor Functions Throughout the Nervous System Are Separated
Inputs and Outputs to the Brain Are Crossed
Brain Anatomy and Function Display Both Symmetry and Asymmetry
The Nervous System Works Through Excitation and Inhibition
The Nervous System Functions on Multiple Levels
Brain Components Operate Both Hierarchically and in Parallel
Functions in the Brain Are Both Localized in Specific Regions and Distributed
Neuroscience in the Twenty-first Century
Why Do Scientists Use Animals in Research?
Focus on Comparative Biology: Ethics and Animal Research
Framing the Animal Research Controversy
Arguments That Favor the Use of Animals in Research
The Health and Well-being of Animals and Humans
Insights into the Evolution of the Human Body
Restricted Experimentation on Humans
Arguments Against the Use of Animals in Research
The Scientific Arguments
The Philosophical Arguments
Legislation and Professional Guidelines for the Use Animals in Research
Policies of Professional Societies on the Use of Animals in Research
The Future of Research with Animals
Glossary
References
Name Index

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