Rational Ritual Culture, Coordination, and Common Knowledge

ISBN-10: 0691158282
ISBN-13: 9780691158280
Edition: 2013 (Revised)
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Description: Why do Internet, financial service, and beer commercials dominate Super Bowl advertising? How do political ceremonies establish authority? Why does repetition characterize anthems and ritual speech? Why were circular forms favored for public  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 4/28/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 152
Size: 5.25" wide x 8.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.660
Language: English

Why do Internet, financial service, and beer commercials dominate Super Bowl advertising? How do political ceremonies establish authority? Why does repetition characterize anthems and ritual speech? Why were circular forms favored for public festivals during the French Revolution? This book answers these questions using a single concept: common knowledge.Game theory shows that in order to coordinate its actions, a group of people must form "common knowledge." Each person wants to participate only if others also participate. Members must have knowledge of each other, knowledge of that knowledge, knowledge of the knowledge of that knowledge, and so on. Michael Chwe applies this insight, with striking erudition, to analyze a range of rituals across history and cultures. He shows that public ceremonies are powerful not simply because they transmit meaning from a central source to each audience member but because they let audience members know what other members know. For instance, people watching the Super Bowl know that many others are seeing precisely what they see and that those people know in turn that many others are also watching. This creates common knowledge, and advertisers selling products that depend on consensus are willing to pay large sums to gain access to it. Remarkably, a great variety of rituals and ceremonies, such as formal inaugurations, work in much the same way.By using a rational-choice argument to explain diverse cultural practices, Chwe argues for a close reciprocal relationship between the perspectives of rationality and culture. He illustrates how game theory can be applied to an unexpectedly broad spectrum of problems, while showing in an admirably clear way what game theory might hold for scholars in the social sciences and humanities who are not yet acquainted with it.In a new afterword, Chwe delves into new applications of common knowledge, both in the real world and in experiments, and considers how generating common knowledge has become easier in the digital age.

List of Figures and Tables
Preface
Introduction
What This Book Is Good For
The Argument
Coordination Problems
Common Knowledge
Where the Argument Comes From
Applications
Ceremonies and Authority
How Do Rituals Work?
Inward-Facing Circles
On the Waterfront
Believe the Hype
The Price of Publicity
Strong Links and Weak Links
The Chapel in the Panopticon
Elaborations
Competing Explanations
Is Common Knowledge an Impossible Ideal?
Meaning and Common Knowledge
Contesting Common Knowledge
Common Knowledge and History
Common Knowledge and Group Identity
Conclusion
Appendix. The Argument Expressed Diagrammatically
References
Afterword to the 2013 Edition
Index

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