Group Problem Solving

ISBN-10: 0691147914
ISBN-13: 9780691147918
Edition: 2011
List price: $28.95 Buy it from $14.23
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Description: Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than the average individual. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial  More...

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Book details

List price: $28.95
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 3/11/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 176
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.594
Language: English

Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than the average individual. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical, logical, scientific, or verbal systems, including algebra problems, analogies, vocabulary, and logical reasoning problems.The book explores basic concepts in group problem solving, social combination models, group memory, group ability and world knowledge tasks, rule induction problems, letters-to-numbers problems, evidence for positive group-to-individual transfer, and social choice theory. The conclusion proposes ten generalizations that are supported by the theory and research on group problem solving.Group Problem Solvingis an essential resource for decision-making research in social and cognitive psychology, but also extremely relevant to multidisciplinary and multicultural problem-solving teams in organizational behavior, business administration, management, and behavioral economics. The first comprehensive textbook on group problem solving in decades Written by a recognized authority in the field An indispensable resource for social and cognitive psychologists, and social scientists interested in decision making and experimental methods

Acknowledgments
Basic Concepts in Group Problem Solving
Group Task, Structure, Process, and Product
Interpersonal Influence Processes
Group Tasks
Additive, Compensatory, Conjunctive, Disjunctive, and Complementary
Divisible and Unitary
Maximizing and Optimizing
Intellective and Judgmental
Summary
Laboratory Experimental Research on Group Problem Solving
Overview of Chapters
Social Combination Models
Marjorie Shaw's Classic Study
Experimental Designs
The Lorge and Solomon Model A
The Lorge and Solomon Model A as an Application of the Binomial Theorem
Smoke and Zajonc: Group Decision Schemes
Thomas and Fink: Extension to More Than Two Response Alternatives
Davis: Social Decision Scheme Theory
Model Testing and Model Fitting
Summary
Memory and Group Problem Solving
Recognition Memory
Transactive Memory
No Communication during Learning or Retrieval
Communication during Retrieval
Communication during Learning and Retrieval
Nine Propositions
Cognitive Interdependence and Convergent Expectations
Shared and Unshared Information
Optimal Assignment of Items to Members
Shared and Unshared Knowledge
Information Sampling Model
Solving a Problem versus Making a Judgment
Social Validation of Information
Common Knowledge Effect
Group Judgment
Group Choice
Jury Memory
Summary
Group Ability Composition on World Knowledge Problems
English Vocabulary
General Achievement
Remote Verbal Associations
Homogeneity and Heterogeneity of Group Member Ability
Conclusions on Group Ability Composition
Collective Induction
An Inductive Rule-Learning Task
Collective versus Individual Induction: Effects of Increasing Evidence
Collective versus Individual Induction: Effects of Increasing Hypotheses
Collective Induction with Increasing Hypotheses and Increasing Evidence
Positive Hypothesis Tests and Negative Hypothesis Tests
Simultaneous Collective and Individual Induction
Social Combination Processes
A Theory of Collective Induction
Collective Induction in Competitive Auctions
Letters-to-Numbers Problems
Letters-to-Numbers Problems
Letters-to-Numbers Strategies
Two-Letter Substitution Strategy
Multiletter Substitution Strategy
Known Answer Strategy
Combined Known Answer and Multiletter Substitution Strategy
Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals
Trials to Solution
Letters per Equation
Letters Identified per Equation
Two-Letter Substitution Strategy
Known Answer Strategy
Summary of Results
Discussion
Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals: Informative Equations and Effective Strategies
Five Instruction Conditions
Trials to Solution
Equations with Minimal Letters
Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals: Effects of Group Size
Previous Research on Group Size on Intellective Tasks
Experimental Design
Trials to Solution
Why Do Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals on Letters-to-Numbers Problems?
Group-to-individual Problem-Solving Transfer
Specific Transfer
Analogies
Mathematical Problems
General Transfer
Mathematical Problems
Brainteasers
Logical Implication
Four Issues in Group-to-individual Transfer
Design
Summary
Social Choice Theory
Basic Concepts of Social Choice Theory
Motions (Alternatives) and Preference C For-Against Matrices
Sequential Pairwise Voting and the Paradox of Voting
Runoff Elections
Rank Order Voting
Approval Voting
The Median Voter Theorem
Condorcet Jury Theorem
Experimental Evidence for Social Choice Theory
The Median Voter Theorem
Agenda Influence
Condorcet Jury Theorem
Successive Majorities in a Hierarchical System
A Remarkable Concurrence
Social Choice Theory and Group Problem Solving: The Constitutional Convention of 1787
Conclusions
Generalizations
Retrospective and Prospective
References
Index

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