Nutrient Cycling and Limitation Hawai'i as a Model System

ISBN-10: 069111580X
ISBN-13: 9780691115801
Edition: 2004
Authors: Peter Vitousek
List price: $75.00 Buy it from $41.53
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Description: The availability or lack of nutrients shapes ecosystems in fundamental ways. From forest productivity to soil fertility, from the diversity of animals to the composition of microbial communities, nutrient cycling and limitation are the basic  More...

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Book details

List price: $75.00
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 7/26/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 232
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.748
Language: English

The availability or lack of nutrients shapes ecosystems in fundamental ways. From forest productivity to soil fertility, from the diversity of animals to the composition of microbial communities, nutrient cycling and limitation are the basic mechanisms underlying ecosystem ecology. In this book, Peter Vitousek builds on over twenty years of research in Hawai'i to evaluate the controls and consequences of variation in nutrient availability and limitation. Integrating research from geochemistry, pedology, atmospheric chemistry, ecophysiology, and ecology, Vitousek addresses fundamental questions: How do the cycles of different elements interact? How do biological processes operating in minutes or hours interact with geochemical processes operating over millions of years? How does biological diversity interact with nutrient cycling and limitation in ecosystems? The Hawaiian Islands provide the author with an excellent model system for answering these questions as he integrates across levels of biological organization. He evaluates the connections between plant nutrient use efficiency, nutrient cycling and limitation within ecosystems, and nutrient input-output budgets of ecosystems. This book makes use of the Hawaiian ecosystems to explore the mechanisms that shape productivity and diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. It will be essential reading for all ecologists and environmental scientists.

List of Tables
List of Figures
Preface
Introduction
The Hawaiian Islands as a Model Ecosystem
Model Systems
Microcosms and Well-studied Systems
A Brief Natural History
The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands
Determinants of Climate
Isolation
Evolution, Conservation, and Culture
Evolution and Speciation
Conservation Biology
Cultural Evolution
Gradients in Environmental Factors, Gradients in Ecosystems
The State Factor Framework
Environmental Gradients as Model Systems
Temperature
Precipitation
The Mauna Loa Matrix
A Substrate Age Gradient across the Hawaiian Islands
Age Control
Climate History
Basic Features of the Gradient
Patterns and Processes in Long-term Ecosystem Development
A Theory for Nutrient Dynamics during Ecosystem Development
Biogeochemical Processes on the Substrate Age Gradient
Soil P Pools
C and N Pools
Available Nutrients
Foliar Nutrients
Forest Productivity
Efficiencies of Resource Use
Decomposition and Nutrient Regeneration
Soil Organic Matter Turnover
Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbacks
Experimental Studies of Nutrient Limitation and the Regulation of Nutrient Cycling
Fertilization Experiments
Nutrient Limitation
Nutrient Availability and Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedback
Tissue Nutrient Concentrations
Productivity
Resource Efficiencies
Decomposition
Nutrient Regeneration
Controls of Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedback
Nutrient Inputs to Hawaiian Ecosystems: Pathways, Rates, and Controls
Inputs of Elements
Weathering
Concepts and Definitions
Approaches
Element Inputs via Weathering
Atmospheric Inputs
Background
Deposition Measurements
Inputs of Water
Nitrogen Inputs
Influence of an Active Volcano
Inputs of Other Elements
Long-Distance Dust Transport
Background
Methods
Element Inputs
The Fate of Dust
Biological N Fixation
Background
Approach
Rates of Fixation
Other Inputs
Combined Inputs by All Known Pathways
Strontium Isotopes: A Direct Test of Input Pathways
Chloride and Sulfate
Mobile Cations
Silicon and Aluminum
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Nutrient Outputs: Pathways, Controls, and Input-Output Budgets
Output Pathways
Leaching
N-Containing Trace Gases
Erosion
Other Pathways of Loss
Rates and Controls of N and P Losses
Input-Output Budgets
Budget Calculations
Using These Element Budgets
Issues and Opportunities
Interactions of Time Scales
An Exploratory Model
Supply versus Demand
Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbacks
Sources and Sinks
Inputs and Outputs
Interactions across Scales
The Regulation of Nutrient Inputs and Outputs
Demand-Independent Pathways of Element Loss
Implications of Demand--Independent Nutrient Losses
Stoichiometry and Flexibility
Within-System Element Cycling
Inputs and Outputs
Biological N Fixation
Differences in Populations, Species, and Diversity
Biological Differences and Ecosystem Functioning
Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Three Final Points
References
Index

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