Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

ISBN-10: 069109506X

ISBN-13: 9780691095066

Edition: 2007

Authors: David J. Burdige

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Description:

The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner'sEarly Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach, David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese. No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis,Geochemistry of Marine Sedimentswill interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.
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Book details

List price: $120.00
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 9/10/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 624
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.49" long x 1.51" tall
Weight: 2.376
Language: English

Preface
Common Abbreviations and Symbols
Introduction
The Components of Marine Sediments
Detrital Components
Biogenic Components
Biogenic Carbonates
Biogenic Silica
Distribution of Biogenic Components in Marine Sediments
Authigenic Minerals
Nonbiogenic Carbonates
Mn Crusts, Layers, and Nodules
Phosphorites
Sulfides
Clays and Clay Minerals
Distribution of Clay Minerals in Surface Marine Sediments
Ion Exchange/Adsorption
The Classification of Marine Sediments and Sedimentary Regimes
Isotope Geochemistry
Introduction
Principles of Isotope Fractionation
Terminology
Equilibrium Isotope Exchange Reactions
Isotope Fractionation in Inorganic Materials in Nature
Isotope Fractionation in the Hydrosphere and in Ice cores
Isotope Fractionation during Clay Mineral Formation
Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Calcite
Carbon Isotopes in Organic Matter
Photosynthesis
Respiration (Early Diagenesis in Sediments)
Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Sediment Pore-Waters
Carbon Isotopes
Oxygen Isotopes
Nitrogen Isotopes
Sulfur Isotopes
Radioactive Isotopes
Basic Principles
Radiocarbon
Physical Properties of Sediments
Grain Size
Porosity and Sediment Density
Permeability
An Introduction to Transport Processes in Sediments
Diffusion
Sediment Accumulation, Steady State, and the Frame of Reference for Processes in Marine Sediments
An Introduction to Bioturbation and Bioirrigation
Time and Space Scales of Sediment Processes
The Classification of Marine Sediments on the Basis of Their Functional Diagenetic Characteristics
Models of Sediment Diagenesis
The General Diagenetic Equation
Diffusion
Advection, Sediment Compaction, and Bioturbation
Adsorption
Solutions to the Diagenetic Equation
Boundary Conditions
Solutions to Specific Diagenetic Equations
Organic Matter Remineralization without Bioturbation
Organic Matter Remineralization with Bioturbation
Organic Matter Remineralization Coupled to Sulfate Reduction
Ammonium Production in Anoxic Sediments
Determination of Sediment Accumulation Rates
Biogeochemical Processes in Sediments
Bacterial Metabolism: General Considerations
Bacterial Respiration and Biogeochemical Zonation in Sediments
Bacterial Respiration: Specific Processes
Aerobic Respiration
Denitrification
Manganese and Iron Reduction
Sulfate Reduction
Methanogenesis
Chemolithotrophic Reactions
Aerobic Processes
Anaerobic Processes
Linkages between Chemolithotrophic and Organic Matter Remineralization Processes
The Distribution of Organic Matter Remineralization Processes in Marine Sediments
Depth Scales of Biogeochemical Zonation
General Trends with Water Column Depth or Sediment Type
Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments
General Considerations
Anaerobic "Foodchains"
Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition under Mixed Redox Conditions
Quantifying Carbon and Nutrient Remineralization in Sediments
Models of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments
Sediment Budgets for Reactive Components
Theoretical Considerations
Sediment Nutrient Budgets Using Cape Lookout Bight as an Example
Carbon Burial in Sediments
Layered and Coupled Models of Sediment Diagenesis
An Introduction to the Organic Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
General Considerations
Concentrations and Sources of Organic Matter in Marine Sediments
The Bulk Chemical Composition of Marine Sediment Organic Matter
Amino Acids
Carbohydrates
Lignins
Lipids
Humic Substances and Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matter
Black Carbon
Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matter (MU-OM): General Considerations
Geopolymerization: The Formation of Humic Substances
Selective Preservation of Refractory Biomacromolecules
Physical Protection
Organic Nitrogen Diagenesis in Sediments
Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Sediments
General Observations
Diagenetic Models of Pore-Water DOM Cycling in Sediments
Pore-Water DOM Compositional Data
Short-Chain Organic Acids
Carbohydrates
Amino Acids
Fluxes of DOM from Marine Sediments
DOM Adsorption and Sediment-Organic Matter Interactions
Linking Sediment Organic Geochemistry and Sediment Diagenesis
The Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments
Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Tracers of Organic Matter Sources
Elemental Ratios as Tracers of Organic Matter Sources
Spatial Trends in the Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments: Marine versus Terrestrial
Other Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments: Black Carbon and Recycled Kerogen
Production of Bacterial Biomass in Sediments
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization in Marine Sediments
Pore-Water Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regeneration/Organic Mater Remineralization
Benthic Flux and Sediment POM Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regeneration
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Elemental Ratios and Stable Isotopic Composition
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Organic Geochemical Composition
Processes at the Sediment-Water Interface
The Determination of Benthic Fluxes
Diffusive Transport and the Benthic Boundary Layer
Sediment-Water Exchange Processes in Permeable Sediments
Bioturbation
General Considerations
Models of Bioturbation
Nonlocal Sediment Mixing
Bioirrigation
The Diffusive Openness of Bioirrigated Sediments
Methods for Quantifying Bioirrigation in Sediments
Rates of Bioirrigation in Marine Sediments
Other Sediment-Water Interface Processes: Methane Gas Ebullition
Biogeochemical Processes in Pelagic (Deep-Sea) Sediments
Organic Matter Remineralization
Trace Metal Diagenesis
Manganese Nodules and Crusts
Diagenesis of Opaline Silica
Diagenesis of Calcium Carbonate
Nonsteady-State Processes in Marine Sediments
General Considerations
Periodic Input Processes
Seasonality in Sediment Processes
Diagenetic Processes in Deep-Sea Turbidites
Organic Geochemical Studies of Turbidite Diagenesis
Multiple Mn Peaks in Sediments: Nonsteady-State Diagenetic Processes Associated with Paleoceanographic Changes
Multiple Mn Peaks and the Glacial-Holocene Transition
Multiple Mn Peaks and Pleistocene Climate Cycles
Multiple Mn Peaks in Holocene Sediments
The Controls on Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments
Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions
The Role of Oxygen in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservation
The Role of Benthic Macrofaunal Processes in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservation
Oxygen Exposure Time as a Determinant of Organic Carbon Preservation in Sediments
What Exactly Does Sediment Oxygen Exposure "Mean"?
Organic Carbon Burial and Controls on Atmospheric 0[subscript 2]
The Composition of Organic Matter Preserved in Marine Sediments and the Fate of Terrestrial Organic Matter in Marine Sediments
The Relationship between Physical Protection, Oxygen Exposure, and Possible Abiotic Condensation Reactions in Sediment Carbon Preservation
Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. I. The CO[subscript 2] System and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling
Pore-Water pH and Carbonate Chemistry under Suboxic and Anoxic Conditions
Sediment Nitrogen Cycling
Benthic DON Fluxes
Sediment Phosphorus Cycling
Formation of Authigenic CFA and Phosphorus Burial in Sediments
Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. II. Sulfur, Methane, and Trace Metal Cycling
Sediment Sulfur Cycling
Sulfur Burial Efficiency
Long-Term Changes in the Sedimentary Sulfur Cycle
Methanogenesis and Anaerobic Methane Oxidation
Shallow (Coastal) Sediments
Continental Margin Sediments
Trace Metal Cycling
Linking Sediment Processes to Global Elemental Cycles: Authigenic Clay Mineral Formation and Reverse Weathering
Sediment Silica Budgets
Final Thoughts
Some of the Field Sites Discussed in the Text
References
Index
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