Mechanical Design in Organisms

ISBN-10: 0691083088
ISBN-13: 9780691083087
Edition: 1982 (Reprint)
List price: $99.95 Buy it from $6.12
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Description: This book deals with an interface between mechanical engineering and biology. It reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological  More...

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Book details

List price: $99.95
Copyright year: 1982
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 7/21/1982
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 423
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

This book deals with an interface between mechanical engineering and biology. It reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological integration is permitted and controlled by structure at lower levels of integration.

Preface
Acknowledgement
List of symbols
Introduction
Materials
Principles of the strength of materials: Phenomenological description
Introduction
Stress and Strain
Linear Elasticity
The Elastic Moduli
Poisson's Ratio
Elastic Resilience--Stored Energy
Elastic Stress Concentrations
Fracture of Linearly Elastic Solids
Summary of Properties of Linearly Elastic Solids
Viscosity and Relaxation
Linear Viscoelasticity
Creep and Stress Relaxation
Effect of Temperature
The Glass Transition
Dynamic Behaviour
Viscoelastic Models
Retardation and Relaxation Spectra
Fracture of Viscoelastic Materials
Generalization of the Griffith Theory of Fracture
Summary of Properties of Viscoelastic Materials
Principles of the strength of materials: Molecular interpretation
Introduction
Thermodynamics of Mechanical Deformation
Linear Elasticity
The Structure of Polymers
Statistics of a Polymer Chain
Rubber Elasticity
Molecular Interpretations of Rubbery Polymers
Molecular Structure and the Master Curve
Tensile materials
Introduction to Crystalline Polymers
Factors Affecting Crystallinity in Polymers
The Structure of Polymer Crystals
Mechanical Properties of Crystalline Polymers
Silk
The Structure of Parallel-[beta] Silks
The Mechanical Properties of Silks
Other Types of Silk
Collagen
The Structure of Collagen
Mechanical Properties of Collagen Fibres
Cellulose
The Structure of Cellulose
Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Fibres
Chitin
The Structure of Chitin
Mechanical Properties of Chitin Fibres
Pliant materials
Introduction
The Protein Rubbers
Resilin
Abductin
Elastin
The Mucopolysaccharides
Pliant Composites
Fibre Patterns in Pliant Composites
The Role of the Amorphous Phase
Mesoglea
Uterine Cervix
Skin
Arterial Wall
Cartilage
Mechanical Properties of Cartilage
Rigid materials
Introduction
Limiting Behaviour of Composite Materials
Elastic Fibres in a Matrix
Discontinuous Fibres
Effect of Fibre Orientation
Compression of Composite Materials
Fracture of Composite Materials
Voids
Structure of Arthropod Cuticle
Mechanical Properties of Arthropod Cuticle
Structure of Bone
Mechanical Properties of Bone
Main Features of Behaviour in Relation to Structure
Anisotropic Behaviour of Bone
Stress Concentrations in Bone
The Effect of Mineralization on Bone
Fatigue in Bone
Adaptive Growth and Reconstruction in Bone
Keratin
Gorgonin and Antipathin
Structure of the Plant Cell Wall
Cell Wall Structure in Nitella
The Tracheid
Mechanical Properties of Cell Walls
Structure of Wood
Mechanical Properties of Wood
Stony Materials
Porifera
Cnidaria
Mollusca
Brachiopoda
Arthropoda
Echinodermata
Birds' Eggshells
Spicules: Mechanical Considerations
Teeth
Mechanical Properties of Stony Materials
Grain Size
Porosity
The Function of the Organic Matrix
Stony Skeletons with Many Holes
Rigid Skeletal Materials: some Final Remarks
Structural Elements and Systems
Elements of structural systems
Introduction
Bending
Compression and Buckling
Torsion
Cross-Sectional Shape
Shells
Materials for Minimum Weight
Principles of Structural Optimization
The Failure of Elements (and Shells)
Joints
Degrees of Freedom
Forces and Directions
Flexible Joints
Sliding Joints
Adaptation of Shape
Adaptation of Material
Support in organisms
Introduction to Rigid and Flexible Systems
The Optimization of Space Frames
Fibre-wound Cylinders as Reinforced Membrane Sytems
Design Principles for Biological Structural Systems
Real Organisms: An Overview
Symmetry
Reaction to Force
Fluid Support Systems in Plants and Animals
High-Pressure Worms
Low-Pressure Worms
Open, Extensible Cylinders: Sea Anemones
Hydra and Other Polyps
Medusae
Tube Feet
Metamerism
On Being Surrounded by Air
Wilting Plants
Woody Plants
Reaction Wood
Fibre-reinforced Palm Trees
The Hydrostatic Onychophora
Jointed Frameworks of Solid Materials
Running and Burrowing Myriapods
Insects
Complex Support Systems: Molluscs and Echinoderms
Squid Locomotion
Backbones
Stressed Tissues
Safety Factors
Ecomechanics
Ecological mechanics
Introduction
The Stressful Environment
Adaptations to Gravity (Mass)
Adaptations to Velocity of Flow (Strength and Rigidity)
Rigid Stony Corals
Compliant and Tensile Grasses, Seaweeds and Spider Webs
Drag Control in Air: Trees
Drag Control in Water: Passive Suspension Feeders
Adaptations to Direction of Flow (Anisotropy)
Adaptations to Duration and Frequency of Flow (Stress Rate and Fatigue)
Meiofauna and the Stormy Interstices
Active Suspension Feeders
The Informative Environment
Chemical Information
Thermal Information
Rheological Information
The Next Few Years
References--Author Index
Subject Index

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