Value-Focused Thinking A Path to Creative Decisionmaking

ISBN-10: 067493198X

ISBN-13: 9780674931985

Edition: 1992

Authors: Ralph L. Keeney
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Description: The standard way of thinking about decisions is backwards, says Ralph Keeney: people focus first on identifying alternatives rather than on articulating values. A problem arises and people react, placing the emphasis on mechanics and fixed choices instead of on the objectives that give decisionmaking its meaning. In this book, Keeney shows how recognizing and articulating fundamental values can lead to the identification of decision opportunities and the creation of better alternatives. The intent is to be proactive and to select more attractive decisions to ponder before attempting any solutions. Keeney describes specific procedures for articulating values by identifying and structuring objectives qualitatively, and he shows how to apply these procedures in various cases. He then explains how to quantify objectives using simple models of values. Such value analysis, Keeney demonstrates, can yield a full range of alternatives, thus converting decision problems into opportunities. This approach can be used to uncover hidden objectives, to direct the collection of information, to improve communication, to facilitate collective decisionmaking, and to guide strategic thinking. To illustrate these uses, Keeney shows how value-focused thinking works in many business contexts, such as designing an integrated circuit tester and managing a multibillion-dollar utility company; in government contexts, such as planning future NASA space missions and deciding how to transport nuclear waste to storage sites; and in personal contexts, such as choosing career moves and making wise health and safety decisions. An incisive, applicable contribution to the art and science of decisionmaking, Value-Focused Thinking will be extremely useful to anyone from consultants and managers to systems analysts and students.

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Book details

Copyright year: 1992
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Publication date: 2/1/1996
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

Concepts
Thinking about Values
Value-Focused Thinking
Creating Alternatives
Identifying Decision Opportunities
Thinking about Values
The Uses of Value-Focused Thinking
The Framework of Value-Focused Thinking
Framing a Decision Situation
Fundamental Objectives
The Decision Context
Guiding Strategic Thinking and Action
The Framework
Comparing Alternative-Focused and Value-Focused Thinking
Ethics and Value Neutrality
Foundations
Identifying and Structuring Objectives
Identifying Objectives
Identifying Fundamental Objectives
Structures of Objectives
How to Structure Objectives
Desirable Properties of Fundamental Objectives
Relating Objectives Hierarchies and Objectives Networks
Incomplete Objectives Hierarchies and Networks
Objectives Hierarchies for Groups
Measuring the Achievement of Objectives
The Concept of an Attribute
The Types of Attributes
Developing Constructed Attributes
Use of Proxy Attributes
Desirable Properties of Attributes
The Decision of Selecting Attributes
Connecting Decision Situations with Attributes
Quantifying Objectives with a Value Model
Building a Value Model
Multiple-Objective Value Models
Single-Objective Value Models
Prioritizing Objectives
The Art of Assessing Value Models
Issues to Consider in Value Assessments
Uses
Uncovering Hidden Objectives
Insights from Attributes
Insights from Violations of Independence Assumptions
Insights from Value Tradeoffs
Insights from Single-Attribute Objective Functions
Insights from Multiple Value Assessments
Creating Alternatives for a Single Decisionmaker
Counteracting Cognitive Biases
Use of Objectives
Use of Strategic Objectives
Focus on High-Value Alternatives
Use of Evaluated Alternatives
Generic Alternatives
Coordinated Alternatives
Process Alternatives
Removing Constraints
Better Utilization of Resources
Screening to Identify Good Alternatives
Alternatives for a Series of Similar Decisions
Creating Alternatives for Multiple Decisionmakers
Pleasing Other Stakeholders
Stakeholder Influence on Your Consequences
Clarifying Stakeholder Values for Group Decisions
Creating Alternatives for Negotiations
Identifying Decision Opportunities
Use of Strategic Objectives
Use of Resources Available
A Broader Decision Context
Monitoring Achievement
Establishing a Process
Negotiating for Your Side and for the Other Side
Being in the Right Place at the Right Time
When You Have No Idea about What to Do
Insights for the Decisionmaking Process
Guiding Information Collection
Evaluating Alternatives
Interconnecting Decisions
Improving Communication
Facilitating Involvement in Multiple-Stakeholder Decisions
Guiding Strategic Thinking
Applications
Selected Applications
NASA Leadership in Space 11
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