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Note: Each chapter concludes with Putting It All Together, Chapter Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions, and Practice Problems | |

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Introduction to Psychological Research | |

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Introduction to the Scientific Method | |

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Introduction (Or Why Am I Here?) | |

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The Scientific Method | |

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The Goals of Psychological Research Scientific Hypotheses | |

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The Flaws in Scientific Research | |

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The Logic of Designing and Interpreting Research | |

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Beginning the Design: Asking the Question | |

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Testing a Hypothesis by Discovering a Relationship | |

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The Role of Statistical Procedures | |

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Summary of the Flow of a Study Experimental Research Methods | |

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Descriptive Research Methods | |

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Understanding Reliability and Validity | |

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Designing an Example Study | |

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Critically Evaluating the Study | |

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Understanding Reliability | |

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Understanding Validity | |

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Minimizing Threats to Validity and Reliability | |

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Issues of Validity and Reliability in Descriptive Studies | |

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Issues of Validity and Reliability in Experiments | |

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Design Issues and Ethical Concerns in Experiments | |

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Two Example Studies | |

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Designing the Independent Variable | |

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Designing the Dependent Variable | |

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Controlling Extraneous Variables | |

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Demand Characteristics | |

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Research Involving Animals Research Ethics | |

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Design Issues and Ethical Concerns in Descriptive Research | |

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The Uses of Descriptive Research | |

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Observational Studies | |

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Field Surveys | |

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Types of Sampling Techniques | |

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Designing Interviews and Questionnaires | |

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Ethical Issues in Descriptive Research | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Summarizing Research | |

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Using Frequency Distributions and Percentiles | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Types of Measurement Scales | |

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Creating Simple Frequency Distributions | |

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Types of Simple Frequency Distributions | |

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Creating Relative Frequency Distributions | |

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Types of Relative Frequency Distributions | |

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Computing Percentile | |

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A Word About Grouped Frequency Distributions | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Summarizing Research Using Measures of Central Tendency | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding Central Tendency | |

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The Mode | |

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The Median | |

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The Mean | |

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Using the Mean in Research Summarizing | |

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Research Using Central Tendency | |

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Designing a Powerful Experiment | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Summarizing Research Using Measures of Variability | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding Variability | |

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Describing the Sample Variance | |

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Describing the Sample Standard Deviation | |

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The Population Standard Deviation and the Population Variance | |

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Variance as the Error in Predictions | |

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Summarizing Research Using the Mean and Standard Deviation | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Summarizing Research Using z-Scores | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding z-Scores | |

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Interpreting z-Scores: The z-Distribution | |

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Using the z-Distribution to Compare | |

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Different Distributions | |

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Using the z-Distribution to Describe Individual Scores | |

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Using z-Scores to Describe Sample Means | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Correlational Research and Correlational Statistics | |

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Correlational Research and the Correlation Coefficient | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding Correlational Research | |

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Distinguishing Characteristics of Correlational Analysis | |

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Types of Relationships | |

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Strength of the Relationship Using the Correlation Coefficient in Research | |

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Computing the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Creating a Powerful Correlational Design | |

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Correlations in the Population | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Using Linear Regression to Predict Scores | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding Linear Regression | |

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The Linear Regression Equation | |

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Describing Errors in Prediction | |

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When Using the Linear Regression Equation Predicting Variability: The Proportion of Variance Accounted | |

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For A Word About Multiple Correlation and Regression | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Introduction to Inferential Statistics | |

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Probability and Making Decisions | |

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About Chance Events More Statistical Notation | |

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The Logic of Probability | |

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Computing Probability | |

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Obtaining Probability From the Standard Normal Curve | |

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Making Decisions Based on Probability | |

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Making Decisions About a Sample Mean | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Overview of Statistical Hypothesis | |

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Testing: The z-Test | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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The Role of Inferential Statistics in Research | |

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Setting Up Inferential Procedures | |

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Testing a Mean When sX is Known: The z-Test Interpreting zobt | |

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Summary of Statistical Hypothesis | |

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Testing The One-Tailed Test | |

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Errors in Statistical Decision Making | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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The Single-Sample Study: Testing a Sample Mean or Correlation Coefficient | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Understanding the t-Test for a Single-Sample Mean | |

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Calculating the Single-Sample t-Test | |

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Estimating the Population m by Computing a Confidence Interval | |

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Summary of the t-Test | |

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Significance Tests for Correlation Coefficients | |

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Summary of Testing a Correlation Coefficient | |

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Maximizing the Power of the t-Test and Correlation Coefficient | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Designing and Analyzing Two-Sample Experiments | |

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The Two-Sample Between-Subjects Experiment and the Independent-Samples t-Test | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Designing the Two-Sample Experiment | |

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Controlling Participant Variables in a Between-Subjects | |

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Design The Independent-Samples t-Test | |

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Describing the Relationship in a Two-Sample Experiment | |

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Power and the Independent Samples t-Test | |

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Eliminating Participants from the Data | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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The Two-Sample Within-Subjects Experiment and the Dependent-Samples t-Test | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Designs That Directly Control Participant Variables | |

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Choosing a Design | |

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The Dependent-Samples t-Test Power and the Dependent-Samples t-Test | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Designing and Analyzing Complex Experiments | |

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The One-Way Between-Subjects Experiment and the One-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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Designing Multilevel Experiments | |

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Overview of ANOVA | |

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Components of the F-Statistic | |

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Computing the F-Ratio | |

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Performing Post Hoc Comparisons | |

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Summary of the Steps in Performing a One-Way ANOVA | |

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Describing the Relationship in a One-Way ANOVA Power and the ANOVA | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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The Two-Way Between-Subjects Experiment and the Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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More Statistical Notation | |

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The Reason for Multifactor Studies | |

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Overview of the Two-Way ANOVA | |

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Computing the Two-Way ANOVA | |

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Interpreting the Two-Way Experiment | |

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Summary of the Steps in Performing a Two-Way ANOVA | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Within-Subjects Experiments and Other Multifactor Designs | |

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Controlling Participant Variables in Complex Designs | |

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The One-Way Within-Subjects Analysis of Variance | |

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The Two-Way Within-Subjects Design | |

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The Two-Way Mixed Design | |

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The Three-Way Design | |

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The Test for Homogeneity of Variance: The Fmax Test | |

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Other Ways to Compare the Means in a Factorial Design | |

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Going Beyond the Analysis of Variance | |

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APA Format for Statistical Notation | |

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Summary of Formulas | |

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Alternative Approaches to Design and Analysis | |

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Quasi-Experiments and Single-Subject Designs | |

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Understanding Quasi-Experiments | |

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Quasi-Independent Variables | |

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Involving Participant Variables | |

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Quasi-Independent Variables | |

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Involving Environmental Ev | |