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Introduction to Statistics | |

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Statistics, Science, and Observations | |

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Populations and Samples | |

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The Scientific Method and the Design of Research Studies | |

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Scales of Measurement | |

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Discrete and Continuous Variables | |

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Statistical Notation | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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Frequency Distribution Tables | |

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Frequency Distribution Graphs | |

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The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Central Tendency | |

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Introduction | |

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The Mean | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | |

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In the Literature: Reporting Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Variability | |

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Introduction | |

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The Range | |

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The Interquartile Range and Semi-interquartile Range | |

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Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | |

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Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | |

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More about Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Standard Deviation | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | |

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Overview | |

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Introduction to z-Scores | |

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z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | |

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Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | |

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Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Probability | |

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Introduction to Probability | |

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Probability and the Normal Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Samples and Sampling Error | |

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The Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | |

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More about Standard Error | |

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In the Literature: Reporting Standard Error | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | |

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The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | |

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Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | |

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An Example of a Hypothesis Test | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of the Statistical Test | |

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Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | |

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The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to the t Statistic | |

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Overview | |

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Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a t Test | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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The t Test for Two Independent Samples | |

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Overview | |

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The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | |

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Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of an Independent-Measures t Test | |

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Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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The t Test for Two Related Samples | |

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Overview | |

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The t Statistic for Related Samples | |

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Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measures t Test | |

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Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Estimation | |

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An Overview of Estimation | |

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Estimation with the t Statistic | |

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A Final Look at Estimation | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to Analysis of Variance | |

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Introduction | |

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The Logic of Analysis of Variance | |

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ANOVA Notation and Formulas | |

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The Distribution of F-Ratios | |

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Examples of Hypothesis Testing with ANOVA | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of Analysis of Variance | |

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Post Hoc Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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More Advanced Analysis of Variance: Repeated-Measures and Two-Factor Designs | |

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Overview | |

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Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measure ANOVA | |

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Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Two-Factor ANOVA | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Correlation and Regression | |

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Introduction | |

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The Pearson Correlation | |

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Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | |

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Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | |

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In the Literature: Reporting Correlations | |

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The Spearman Correlation | |

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Introduction to Regression | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | |

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Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | |

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The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | |

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In the Literature: Reporting the Results for Chi-Square | |

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The Chi-Square Test for Independence | |

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Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Problems | |

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Basic Mathematics Review | |

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Statistical Tables | |

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Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text | |

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Statistics Organizer | |

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References | |

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Index | |