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Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology

ISBN-10: 0534623964
ISBN-13: 9780534623968
Edition: 9th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $147.95
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Description: This streamlined, full-color text is a thorough and well balanced introduction to the fields of physical anthropology and archaeology. Now with a new co-author, Barry Lewis brings his expertise in research methods and his experience with North  More...

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Book details

List price: $147.95
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 504
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

This streamlined, full-color text is a thorough and well balanced introduction to the fields of physical anthropology and archaeology. Now with a new co-author, Barry Lewis brings his expertise in research methods and his experience with North American and South Indian archaeology to this edition. The author teams' conversational writing style and high interest features such as "Digging Deeper", and also new features such as "At a Glance", "Focus Questions" and "Cutting Edge Research" helps students grasp the material and enjoy learning in the process. At the beginning of each chapter the authors also point students and instructors to the media appropriate for that chapter. In addition to the text and Basic Companion Website, Wadsworth offers a Premium Companion Site and several technology based products such as an Online Virtual Laboratories or CD-ROM, the Hominid Fossils CD-ROM and Basic Genetics CD-ROM. See the supplement section for details.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Supplements
About the Authors
Anthropology
Introduction to Anthropology
Introduction
The Biocultural Approach
What Is Anthropology?
Cultural Anthropology
Physical Anthropology
Archaeology
Linguistic Anthropology
The Scientific Method
The Anthropological Perspective
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Heredity and Evolution
The Development of Evolutionary Theory
Introduction
A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought
The Scientific Revolution
Precursors to the Theory of Evolution
The Discovery of Natural Selection
Natural Selection
Natural Selection in Action
Constraints on Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory
Opposition to Evolution
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Heredity and Evolution
Introduction
The Cell
DNA Structure and Function
DNA Replication
Protein Synthesis
Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis
Meiosis
The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel
Mendel's Principle of Segregation
Dominance and Recessiveness
Mendel's Principle of Independent Assortment
Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
Misconceptions Regarding Dominance and Recessiveness
Polygenic Inheritance
Genetic and Environmental Factors
Mitochondrial Inheritance
New Frontiers
Modern Evolutionary Theory
The Modern Synthesis
A Current Definition of Evolution
Factors That Produce and Redistribute Variation
Mutation
Gene Flow
Genetic Drift and Founder Effect
Recombination
Natural Selection Acts on Variation
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Cutting Edge Research-Molecular Applications in Forensic Anthropology
Modern Human Variation and Adaptation
Introduction
Historical Views of Human Variation
The Concept of Race
Racism
Intelligence
Contemporary Interpretations of Human Variation
Human Polymorphisms
Polymorphisms at the DNA Level
Human Biocultural Evolution
Population Genetics
The Adaptive Significance of Human Variation
Solar Radiation, Vitamin D, and Skin Color
The Thermal Environment
High Altitude
Infectious Disease
The Continuing Impact of Infectious Disease
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Macroevolution: Processes of Vertebrate and Mammalian Evolution
Introduction
The Human Place in the Organic World
Principles of Classification
Constructing Classifications and Interpreting Evolutionary Relationships
Definition of Species
Interpreting Species and Other Groups in the Fossil Record
Vertebrate Evolutionary History: A Brief Summary
Digging Deeper: Deep Time
Mammalian Evolution
The Emergence of Major Mammalian Groups
Processes of Macroevolution
Adaptive Radiation
Generalized and Specialized Characteristics
Modes of Evolutionary Change
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Primates
An Overview of the Primates
Introduction
Characteristics of Primates
Primate Adaptations
Evolutionary Factors
Geographical Distribution and Habitats
Diet and Teeth
Locomotion
Primate Classification
A Survey of the Living Primates
Prosimians (Lemurs and Lorises)
Tarsiers
Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes, and Humans)
Hominoids (Apes and Humans)
Humans
Endangered Primates
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Cutting Edge Research-Molecular Applications in Primatology
Primate Behavior
Introduction
The Evolution of Behavior
Some Factors That Influence Social Structure
Why Be Social?
Primate Social Behavior
Dominance
Communication
Aggressive Interactions
Affiliation and Altruism
Reproduction and Reproductive Behaviors
Female and Male Reproductive Strategies
Sexual Selection
Infanticide as a Reproductive Strategy?
Mothers, Fathers, and Infants
Primate Cultural Behavior
Language
The Primate Continuum
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Paleoanthropology/Fossil Hominids
Understanding the Past: Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Methods
Introduction
Definition of Hominid
Mosaic Evolution
What's in a Name?
Biocultural Evolution: The Human Capacity for Culture
Paleoanthropology
Archaeology
Goals of Archaeology
Archaeological Research Projects
Digging Deeper: Mechanisms of Cultural Variation and Change
Piecing Together the Past
Artifacts, Features, and Contexts
Ethnoarchaeology
Digging Deeper: Reconstructing Cultural Behavior from Garbage
Experimental Archaeology
Dating Methods
Relative Dating
Chronometric Dating
Paleoanthropology/Archaeology at Olduvai Gorge
Digging Deeper: Discovery of Zinjanthropus, July 17, 1959
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Cutting Edge Research-Reconstructing the Diets of Earlier Humans
Hominid Origins
Introduction
Early Primate Evolution
Miocene Fossil Hominoids
The Bipedal Adaptation
Early Hominids from Africa
Earliest Traces: Pre-Australopithecus Finds
Australopithecus from East Africa
Australopithecus afarensis from Laetoli and Hadar
Digging Deeper: Cranial Capacity
A Contemporaneous Non-Australopithecine Find?
Later East African Australopithecine Finds
Early Homo
South African Hominids
Earliest Discoveries
Further Discoveries of South African Hominids
Review of Hominids from South Africa
Interpretations: What Does It All Mean?
Continuing Uncertainties-Taxonomic Issues
Putting It All Together
Adaptive Patterns of Early African Hominids
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
The Earliest Dispersal of the Genus Homo: Homo erectus and Contemporaries
Introduction
A New Kind of Hominid
The Morpology of Homo erectus
Brain Size
Body Size
Cranial Shape
Dentition
Who Were the Earliest African Emigrants?
The Dmanisi Hominids
Historical Overview of Homo erectus Discoveries
Java
Homo erectus from Java
Peking (Beijing)
Zhoukoudian Homo erectus
Digging Deeper: Controllers of Fire
Other Chinese Sites
East Africa
Digging Deeper: The Nariokotome Skeleton
Summary of East African Homo erectus/ergaster
North Africa
Europe
Technological and Population Trends in Homo erectus
Technological Trends
Population Trends
Interpretations of Homo erectus: Continuing Uncertainties
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Premodern Humans
Introduction
Where, When, and What
The Pleistocene
Dispersal of Middle Pleistocene Hominids
Middle Pleistocene Hominids: Terminology
Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene
Africa
Europe
Asia
A Review of Middle Pleistocene Evolution
Middle Pleistocene Culture
Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Upper Pleistocene
France and Spain
Central Europe
Western Asia
Central Asia
Culture of Neandertals
Technology
Subsistence
Symbolic Behavior
Burials
Genetic Evidence
Trends in Human Evolution: Understanding Premodern Humans
Digging Deeper: Are They Human?
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Cutting Edge Research-Ancient DNA
The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans
Introduction
Approaches to Understanding Modern Human Origins
The Complete Replacement Model: Recent African Evolution
Partial Replacement Models
The Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution
Seeing the Big Picture
The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans
Africa
The Near East
Central Europe
Western Europe
Asia
Australia
Something New and Different
Technology and Art in the Upper Paleolithic
Europe
Digging Deeper: Maybe, You Can Take It with You
Africa
Summary of Upper Paleolithic Culture
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Archaeology
Early Holocene Hunters and Gatherers
Introduction
Entering the New World
Bering Land Bridge
Pacific Coastal Route
North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor
The Earliest Americans
Biological and Genetic Evidence
Digging Deeper: Kennewick Man-Put Yourself in His Place
Cultural Traces of the Earliest Americans
Paleo-Indians in the Americas
Paleo-Indian Lifeways
Pleistocene Extinctions
Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherers
Environmental Changes
Cultural Adjustments
Case Studies of Early Holocene Cultures
Archaic Hunter-Gatherers of North America
Mesolithic of Northern Europe
Epipaleolithic of the Near East
Digging Deeper: A Remarkable New Window on the Epipaleolithic
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Food Production
Introduction
The Neolithic Revolution
Explaining the Origins of Domestication and Agriculture
Defining Agriculture and Domestication
Environmental Approaches
Cultural Approaches
From Collecting to Cultivating
Archaeological Evidence for Domestication and Agriculture
Digging Deeper: What's to Eat?
Plants
Digging Deeper: Learning about Dead Plants: The Primary Data Are Getting Smaller
Animals
Old World Farmers
The Near East
Africa
Asia
Europe
New World Farmers
New World Domesticates
Mexico
South America
Southwestern United States
Eastern North America
Biocultural Consequences of Food Production
Population Density and Permanent Settlements
Technologies
Economic and Social Relations
Environmental Changes
Environmental Diversity
Science and Religion
Cultural Competition and Change
Health Consequences
Looking at the Big Picture
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Cutting Edge Research-Geomatics: Analyzing Spatial Patterns of the Past
The First Civilizations
Introduction
Civilizations in Perspective
Cities
States
Civilizations
Why Did Civilizations Form?
Environmental Explanations
Cultural Explanations
Old World Civilizations
Mesopotamia
Egypt
Digging Deeper: Who Invented Writing?
Digging Deeper: Mummies and the Archaeology of the Human Body
Indus
Northern China
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
New World Civilizations
Introduction
Lowland Mesoamerica
Olmec: Chiefdom or State?
Classic Maya
Digging Deeper: How to Count and Measure Time-The Maya Way
Highland Mexico
Teotihuacan
Toltecs and Postclassic Maya
Aztecs
Peru
Fishing, Farming, and the Rise of Civilization
Chavin
Early States
Inka
European Conquest of the New World
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Atlas of Primate Skeletal Anatomy
Summary of Early Hominid Fossil Finds from Africa
Population Genetics
Glossary
Bibliography
Photo Credits
Index

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