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Introduction | |

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Inductive Statements | |

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Statistical Reasoning | |

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Rational Decision Making | |

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A Classic Example: Pygmalion in the Classroom | |

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Samples from Populations | |

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Probability | |

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A Note to the Student | |

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Exercises for Chapter 1 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 1A: Introduction to Statistics | |

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Lectlet 1B: Basic Concepts | |

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Resource 1A: Probability Is a Measure of Uncertainty | |

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Algebra: Review | |

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QuizMaster 1A | |

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Variables and Their Measurement | |

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Levels of Measurement | |

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Continuous and Discrete Variables | |

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Real Limits | |

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Significant Figures | |

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Rounding | |

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Summation | |

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Notation | |

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Computations | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 2 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 2A: Variables and Their Measurement | |

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Resource 2X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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Algebra: Summation | |

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QuizMaster 2A | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Distributions as Tables | |

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Distributions as Graphs | |

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Histogram | |

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Frequency Polygon | |

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Eyeball-estimation | |

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The Shape of Distributions | |

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Describing Distributions | |

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The Normal Distribution | |

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Eyeball-calibration | |

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Bar Graphs of Nominal and Ordinal Variables | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 3 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 3A: Summary Distributions as Tables | |

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Lectlet 3B: Summary Distributions as Graphs | |

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Resource 3A: Stem and Leaf Displays | |

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Resource 3X: Additional Exercises | |

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QuizMaster 3A | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Mode | |

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Eyeball-estimating the Mode | |

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Determining the Mode | |

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Median | |

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Eyeball-estimating the Median | |

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Computing the Median | |

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Mean | |

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Eyeball-estimating the Mean | |

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Computing the Sample Mean | |

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Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | |

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Computing the Population Mean | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 4 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 4A: Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Lectlet 4B: Computing and Eyeball-estimating the Mean | |

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Resource 4A: The Linear Method for Computing the Median | |

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Resource 4B: Computing the Mean from a Frequency Distribution | |

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Resource 4X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT meanest: Eyeball-estimating the Mean from a Histogram | |

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ESTAT meannum: Eyeball-estimating the Mean from a Table | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 4A | |

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Measures of Variation | |

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Range | |

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Standard Deviation | |

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Mean Squared Deviation Formulas | |

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Inflection Points of Normal Distributions | |

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Eyeball-estimation | |

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Computing the Standard Deviation | |

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Variance | |

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Eyeball-calibration for Distributions | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 5 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 5A: Measures of Variation | |

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Lectlet 5B: Computing and Eyeball-estimating the Standard Deviation | |

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Resource 5A: The Mean Deviation and the Average Absolute Deviation | |

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Resource 5B: Computational Formulas for the Standard Deviation and Variance | |

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Resource 5C: Computing the Standard Deviation from a Frequency Distribution | |

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Resource 5X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT sdest: Eyeball-estimating the Standard Deviation from a Histogram | |

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ESTAT sdnum: Eyeball-estimating the Standard Deviation from a Table | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 5A | |

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Using Frequency Distributions | |

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Points in Distributions | |

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Percentiles and Percentile Rank | |

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Standard Scores (z Scores) | |

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Areas Under Distributions | |

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Using Areas Under Distributions | |

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Areas Under Normal Distributions | |

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Eyeball-estimation | |

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Eyeball-calibration | |

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Calculating Areas | |

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Other Standardized Distributions Based on z Scores | |

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Relative Frequencies of Real-World Normal Variables | |

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Percentiles and Percentile Rank in Normal Distributions | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 6 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 6A: Areas Under Distributions | |

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Lectlet 6B: Areas Under Normal Distributions | |

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Resource 6A: Interpolation | |

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Resource 6B: Equation of the Normal Distribution | |

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Resource 6X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT normal: Eyeball-estimating Areas Under the Normal Distribution | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 6A | |

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Samples and the Sampling Distribution of the Means | |

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Random Samples | |

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Simple Random Sampling | |

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Samples from Populations | |

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The Sampling Distribution of the Means | |

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The Central Limit Theorem | |

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Factors That Affect the Magnitude of [sigma subscript x]: n and [sigma] | |

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Using the Sampling Distribution of the Means | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 7 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 7A: Samples from Populations and the Distribution of Means | |

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Lectlet 7B: The Central Limit Theorem | |

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Lectlet 7C: The Standard Error of the Mean | |

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Resource 7X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT mdist: Tutorial-The Distribution of Means and How n Affects It | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 7A | |

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Parameter Estimation | |

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Point-estimation | |

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Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Confidence Intervals | |

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When [sigma] Is Known | |

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Changing the Level of Confidence | |

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When [sigma] Is Unknown | |

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Opinion Polls | |

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Four Factors That Affect the Width of a Confidence Interval | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 8 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 8A: Confidence Intervals | |

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Lectlet 8B: Computing Confidence Intervals | |

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Lectlet 8C: Confidence Intervals II | |

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Resource 8A: Unbiased Estimators and the Denominator of the Standard Deviation | |

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Resource 8B: Degrees of Freedom in the Computation of a Standard Deviation or Variance | |

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Resource 8C: Opinion Polls: Using the Confidence Interval for a Proportion | |

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Resource 8X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT confide: Eyeball-estimating Confidence Intervals | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 8A | |

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Evaluating Hypotheses | |

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Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Inferential Statistics | |

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Evaluating Hypotheses | |

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Null and Alternative Hypotheses | |

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Directional (One-tailed) and Nondirectional (Two-tailed) Hypotheses | |

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Type I and Type II Errors | |

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Level of Significance ([alpha]) | |

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Statistical Power | |

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The Courtroom Analogy | |

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Practical Significance | |

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The Procedure for Evaluating Hypotheses | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Computers | |

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Journals | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 9 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 9A: Inferential Statistics | |

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Lectlet 9B: The Procedure for Evaluating Hypotheses | |

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Resource 9A: Why Statistical Significance Testing Alone Is Not Enough | |

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QuizMaster 9A | |

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Inferences About Means of Single Samples | |

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Evaluating Hypotheses About Means | |

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When [sigma] Is Known | |

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A Directional (One-tailed) Example | |

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Practical Significance: Effect Size | |

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When [sigma] Is Unknown | |

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The Relationship Between Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals | |

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Statistical Significance is Not Necessarily Practical Significance | |

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One-sample + Test Eyeball-calibration | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 10 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 10A: Inferences About Means of Single Samples: Illustrating the Null Hypothesis | |

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Lectlet 10B: Inferences About Means of Single Samples: Completing the Evaluation | |

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Lectlet 10C: Inferences About Means of Single Samples: When the Test is Directional or [sigma] is Unknown | |

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Resource 10A: Eyeball-estimating One-sample + Tests | |

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Resource 10X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT ttest 1: Eyeball-estimating One-sample + Tests | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 10A | |

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Inferences About Means of Two Independent Samples | |

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Hypotheses with Two Independent Samples | |

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Dependent and Independent Variables | |

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The Null Hypothesis | |

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Experimental Outcomes | |

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The Test Statistic | |

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Standard Error of the Difference Between Two Means | |

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Pooled Variance | |

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Interpreting the Standard Error of the Difference Between Two Means | |

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Evaluating Hypotheses About Means of Two Independent Samples | |

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Procedure | |

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A Directional (One-tailed) Example | |

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Practical Significance Versus Statistical Significance Revisited | |

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Two-sample + Test Eyeball-calibration | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 11 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 11A: Hypothesis Evaluation with Two Independent Samples: The Test Statistic | |

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Lectlet 11B: Hypothesis Evaluation with Two Independent Samples: The Standard Error of the Difference Between Two Means | |

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Lectlet 11C: Hypothesis Evaluation with Two Independent Samples: Completing the Analysis | |

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Resource 11A: Eyeball-estimating Two-independent-samples + Tests | |

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Resource 11X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT diffm: Tutorial-The Distribution of Differences Between Means | |

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ESTA ttest2: Eyeball-estimating Two-independent-samples + Tests | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 11A | |

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Inferences About Means of Two Dependent Samples | |

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Dependent-sample Tests | |

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Evaluating Hypotheses About Means of Two Dependent Samples | |

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An Example | |

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Null Hypothesis | |

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Test Statistic | |

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Evaluating the Hypothesis | |

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Comparing Dependent-and Independent-sample + Tests | |

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Dependent-sample + Test Eyeball-calibration | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 12 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 12A: Inferences About Two Dependent Samples | |

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Resource 12A: Eyeball-estimating Dependent-sample + Tests | |

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Resource 12X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 12A | |

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Statistical Power | |

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Statistical Power | |

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An Example | |

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Illustrating Power | |

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Factors That Increase Power | |

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Increasing the Sample Size Increases Power | |

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Increasing the Raw Effect Size Increases Power | |

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Decreasing [sigma] Increases Power | |

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Increasing [alpha] Increases Power | |

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Changing from a Nondirectional to a Directional Test Increases Power | |

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Using Power to Determine Sample Size | |

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An Example | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 13 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 13A: Statistical Power | |

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Lectlet 13B: Consequences of Statistical Power | |

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Resource 13X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT power: Eyeball-estimating Power from n, Effect Size, and Standard Deviation | |

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QuizMaster 13A | |

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Inferences About Two or More Means: Analysis of Variance | |

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Why Multiple + Tests Are Not Appropriate | |

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Hypotheses with Three or More Samples | |

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Null Hypothesis | |

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Alternative Hypothesis | |

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Logic of Analysis of Variance | |

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MS[subscript B]: Between-group oint-estimate of [sigma superscript 2] | |

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MS[subscript W]: Within-group Point-estimate of [sigma superscript 2] | |

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F Ratio | |

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ANOVA is Nondirectional | |

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Partitioning the Sum of Squares | |

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Review of the Procedure | |

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Another Example | |

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ANOVA Eyeball-calibration | |

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Number of Subjects Required for Adequate Power | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 14 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 14A: Hypotheses with Three or More Groups | |

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Lectlet 14B: Logic of the Analysis of Variance | |

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Lectlet 14C: Computing the Analysis of Variance | |

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Lectlet 14D: Interpreting the Analysis of Variance | |

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Resource 14A: Computational Formulas for ANOVA | |

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Resource 14B: Eyeball-estimating the Analysis of Variance | |

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Resource 14X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT anova: Eyeball-estimating the Analysis of Variance | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 14A | |

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Post Hoc Tests, A Priori Tests, Repeated-Measures ANOVA, and Two-way ANOVA | |

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Interpreting ANOVA: Post Hoc Tests | |

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Instead of ANOVA: A Priori Tests | |

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A Priori Tests When There Are Two Groups | |

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Comparisons | |

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Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance | |

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Two-way Analysis of Variance | |

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Displaying the Outcome of a Two-way Design | |

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Main Effects | |

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Interaction | |

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Kinds of Interaction | |

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Null Hypothesis for Interaction | |

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Interpreting Two-way ANOVA | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 15 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 15A: Post Hoc Tests and A Priori Tests | |

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Lectlet 15B: Repeated-measures Analysis of Variance | |

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Lectlet 15C: Two-way Analysis of Variance | |

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Resource 15A: Comprehending and Computing Post Hoc Tests | |

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Resource 15B: Comprehending and Computing A Priori Tests | |

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Resource 15C: Comprehending and Computing Repeated-measures ANOVA | |

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Resource 15D: Comprehending and Computing Two-way ANOVA | |

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Resource 15X: Additional Exercises | |

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QuizMaster 15A | |

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Measures of the Relationship Between Two Variables: Correlation | |

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Correlation Coefficient | |

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Scatter Diagrams | |

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Values of r | |

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Pearson's r | |

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z Score Formulas | |

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How It Works | |

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Factors That Affect the Size of r | |

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Correlation Does Not Imply Causation | |

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Testing Hypotheses About r | |

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Power | |

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Spearman's r[subscript S] | |

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Ranking | |

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Testing Hypotheses About r[subscript s] | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 16 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 16A: Correlation | |

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Lectlet 16B: Computing the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Resource 16A: Computational Formulas for the Pearson Correlation Coefficient | |

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Resource 16B: The Significance Test for r is Derived from the Test Statistic + | |

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Resource 16X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT scatter: Eyeball-estimating the Correlation Coefficient from a Scatterplot | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 16A | |

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Prediction: Linear Regression | |

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Regression Lines | |

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Notation | |

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The Equation | |

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Eyeball-estimating the Constants | |

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Computing the Constants | |

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Interpreting the Constants | |

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Regression Line in Standard Form | |

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Regression to the Mean | |

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The Best (Least Squares) Regression Line | |

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Error of Prediction | |

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The Best Line | |

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Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Coefficient of Determination | |

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Predicted Distribution | |

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Interpreting Correlation and Regression | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 17 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 17A: Linear Regression | |

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Lectlet 17B: Computing the Regression Equation | |

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Lectlet 17C: The Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Resource 17A: Computational Formula for the Regression Line Slope | |

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Resource 17B: What Causes Regression to the Mean? | |

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Resource 17C: Partitioning the Regression Sum of Squares | |

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Resource 17D: A Small Correlation Can Have Dramatic Impact | |

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Resource 17X: Additional Exercises | |

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ESTAT regtry: Eyeball-estimating the Regression Line | |

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ESTAT corest: Prediction and Regression to the Mean | |

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ESTAT datagen: Statistical Computational Package and Data Generator | |

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QuizMaster 17A | |

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Some Nonparametric Statistical Tests | |

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Testing with a Nonnormal Distribution | |

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Nonparametric Statistical Tests | |

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Tests for Data Measured at the Nominal Level | |

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One Sample: The X[superscript 2] Goodness of Fit Test | |

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Two Independent Samples: The X[superscript 2] Test of Independence | |

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Two Dependent Samples: The McNemar Test for Significance of Change | |

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Tests for Data Measured at the Ordinal Level | |

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Two Independent Samples: The Mann-Whitney U Test | |

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Two Dependent Samples: The Wilcoxon Matched-pairs Signed-rank Test | |

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k Independent Samples: The Kruskal-Wallis H Test | |

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Choosing Between Parametric and Nonparametric Tests | |

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Connections | |

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Cumulative Review | |

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Journals | |

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Computers | |

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Homework Tips | |

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Exercises for Chapter 18 | |

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On the Personal Trainer CD | |

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Lectlet 18A: Nonparametric Statistics: Chi-square | |

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Lectlet 18B: Nonparametric Statistics Based on Order | |

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Resource 18X: Additional Exercises | |