Learning and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0534598684

ISBN-13: 9780534598686

Edition: 5th 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Paul Chance

List price: $121.95
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Description:

LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR looks at learning as an evolutionary mechanism. Chance's book is stimulating, interactive, and peppered with high-interest queries and examples. Chance provides the depth of conceptual knowledge usually associated with books twice as dense and infinitely less interesting. Chance's engaging work has become a favorite of students because of his ability to illuminate how the psychology of learning can offer insight into their own behavior.
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Book details

List price: $121.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/15/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 528
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.672
Language: English

Introduction: Learning to Change
Natural Selection
Box: The Face of Change
Reflexes
Fixed Action Patterns
General Behavior Traits
The Limits of Natural Selection
Learning: Evolved Modifiability
Nature and Nature
Box: The Superior Animal
The Study of Learning and Behavior
Learning Defined
Learning Means Change
What Changes Is Behavior
Box: Defining Operations
What Changes Behavior Is Experience
Measuring Learning
Research Designs
Anecdotal Evidence
Case Studies
Descriptive Studies
Experimental Studies
Limitations of Experimental Research
Animal Research and Human Learning
Reasons for Animal Research
Objections to Animal Research
Questions About Learning
Pavlovian Conditioning
Box: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Foot
Basic Procedures
Box: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning?
Higher-Order Conditioning
Measuring Pavlovian Learning
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning
Pairing CS and US
Box: Pavlovian Flowchart
CS-US Contingency
CS-US Contiguity
Stimulus Features
Prior Experience with CS and US
Number of CS-US Pairings
Intertrial Interval
Other Variables
Extinction of Conditional Responses
Box: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Been
Theories of Conditioning
Stimulus Substitution Theory
Preparatory Response Theory
Box: Conditioning and Awareness
Pavlovian Applications
Fear
Box: Thank You, Albert
Box: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fear
Prejudice
Advertising
Box: Bite Your Tongue!
The Paraphilias
Taste Aversions
Box: Changing the Coyote's Menu
Immune Function
Operant Reinforcement
Box: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demanded
Basic Procedures
Box: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Science
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Compared
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
Shaping and Chaining
Box: Tips for Shapers
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
Contingency
Contiguity
Reinforcer Characteristics
Task Characteristics
Deprivation Level
Box: Octopi Individuality
Other Variables
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior
Theories of Reinforcement
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theory
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principle
Response Deprivation Theory
Theories of Avoidance
Two-Process Theory
One-Process Theory
Operant Punishment
Basic Procedures
Box: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Compared
Variables Affecting Punishment
Contingency
Contiguity
Punisher Intensity
Introductory Level of Punishment
Reinforcement of the Punished Behavior
Alternative Sources of Reinforcement
Deprivation Level
Other Variables
Theories of Punishment
Two-Process Theory
One-Process Theory
Problems with Punishment
Escape
Aggression
Apathy
Abuse
Imitation of the Punisher
Alternatives to Punishment
Response Prevention
Extinction
Differential Reinforcement
Noncontingent Reinforcement
Operant Applications
Animal Care and Training
Box: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogs
Self-Awareness
Box: The Shaping of Awareness
Self-Control
Verbal Behavior
Box: Rewarding Lies
Insightful Problem Solving
Creativity
Superstition
Box: Quick! Get Some Mud!
Learned Helplessness
Delusions and Hallucinations
Self-Injurious Behavior
Vicarious Learning
Basic Procedures
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioning
Vicarious Operant Learning
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitation
Generalized Imitation
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learning
Consequences of the Model's Behavior
Consequences of the Observer's Behavior
Characteristics of the Model
Box: Vicarious Learning and Human Nature
Observer's Age
Observer's Learning History
Box: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes?
Other Variables
Theories of Vicarious Learning
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theory
Applications of Vicarious Learning
Foraging
Crime and Television
Therapy for Phobia
Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control
Generalization
Generalization Gradients
Semantic Generalization
Box: Generalized Therapy
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishment
Discrimination
Discrimination Training
Box: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheads
Box: Lessons from Lepers
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Procedures
Errorless Discrimination Training
Differential Outcomes Effect
Stimulus Control
Box: Stimulus Control and Adaptation
Theories of Generalization and Discrimination
Pavlov's Theory
Spence's Theory
The Lashley-Wade Theory
Applications of Generalization and Discrimination
Concept Formation
Mental Rotation
Smoking Relapse
Experimental Neuroses
Schedules of Reinforcement
Simple Schedules
Continuous Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedules
Variable Ratio Schedules
Box: VR Harassment
Fixed Interval Schedules
Variable Interval Schedules
Other Simple Schedules
Stretching the Ratio
Extinction
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PRE
Discrimination Hypothesis
Frustration Hypothesis
Sequential Hypothesis
Response Unit Hypothesis
Complex Schedules
Choice and the Matching Law
Box: Ghetto Choice
Applications of Schedules
Compulsive Gambling
Experimental Economics
Malingering
The Importance of Schedules Research
Forgetting
Defining Forgetting
Measuring Forgetting
Box: The Myth of Permanent Memory
Variables in Forgetting
Degree of Learning
Prior Learning
Subsequent Learning
Context
Box: Reminiscence and the State of Learning
Applied Research on Forgetting
Foraging
Eyewitness Testimony
Learning to Remember
Box: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shuffle
Overlearn
Use Mnemonics
Try a Mnemonic System
Use Context Cues
Use Prompts
Box: The Man Who Couldn't Forget
A Final Word on Forgetting
The Limits of Learning
Physical Characteristics
Nonheritability of Learned Behavior
Heredity and Learning Ability
Neurological Damage and Learning
Box: Recipe for Genius
Critical Periods
Preparedness and Learning
Box: Learning and Humanity
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
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