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Counseling Diverse Clients Bringing Context into Therapy

ISBN-10: 0534563902
ISBN-13: 9780534563905
Edition: 2004
List price: $217.95 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: This text helps future counselors and therapists understand the context in which they practice from and to learn how to evaluate the context their clients are coming from. It moves away from the traditional categorization of clients into one group  More...

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Book details

List price: $217.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 10/16/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

This text helps future counselors and therapists understand the context in which they practice from and to learn how to evaluate the context their clients are coming from. It moves away from the traditional categorization of clients into one group or another based on race, ethnicity, culture, lifestyle, socioeconomic status or religion. Rather, it helps students learn to practice with others different from themselves by evaluating the context or life circumstances from which their clients come. The book also provides a sound model for understanding and assessing the role that race, ethnicity, culture, lifestyle, disability and religion play in the client's life, and it gives concrete practice implications and skills.

Jeanne Slattery is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania. She is a clinical psychologist interested in the effects of culture and context on behavior. For several years, she has been involved with an in-home family therapy program that works with children and families who have been failed by the more traditional therapeutic approaches offered by our community mental health system. She works with the clients to acknowledge client strengths, identify healthy solutions, and build a strong support network.

Preface
The Impact of Context
Looking at the Social Psychology of Therapy
Why Is Context Important?
Recognizing Context and Thinking Critically
Missing the Context in Therapy
Respecting Individual Focus and Context
Seeing Parts Versus Seeing the Whole
Assessing Context
Choosing Places to Look
Two Examples: Rosa and Abbey
Assessing Context in Therapy
Family Genogram
Psychosocial History and the Community Genogram
Timelines
Bringing These Assessments Together
Interviewing for Context
Introducing Grasy
Conclusions
Defining Culture and Context
Universal and Focused Approaches to Therapy
Toward a Universal Approach
The Effects of Culture
Relative Roles of Individual and Cultural Differences
Limitations of Using Culture as a Predictor
Culture Influences Rather Than Determines
The Importance of Group Membership
Relative Importance of Different Group Memberships
The Effects of Euro-American Culture on Therapy
Normality: Perceiving the World Through Culture's Filter
The Effects of Context
Dangers of Perceiving Context
Conclusions
Oppression and Prejudice
The Development of Group Divisions
Blaming the Victim and the Just World Hypothesis
Seeing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Seeing Social Inequities and Social Control
Oppression
Privilege
Seeing the Consequences of Oppression
School Performance
Hope, Self-Esteem, and Views of the Future
Psychological and Physical Health
Coping With Oppression and Being Outcast
Therapeutic Implications of Identifying Oppression
An Example
Consequences of Oppression on the Oppressors
Conclusions
Values and Worldviews
What Is Valuing?
Barriers to Recognizing Values
Recognizing Others' Values
What Is a Worldview?
Significant Aspects of Worldview
Ontology: Explanations of Phenomena
Mutability: Obstacles to Change
Trust: The Nature of Human Relationships
Authority: The Nature of Helping Relationships
Group: Autonomy, Individualism, and Relationships
Locus of Responsibility
Locus of Control
Conclusions
When Worldviews Clash
Clashing Worldviews
Searching for Consistency
Feelings and Attitudes About Those Who Are Different
Recognizing and Challenging Potentially Coercive Values
Coercive Effects of Therapy
Socialization to Therapy
Identification of the "Problem"
Identification of Treatment Goals
Negotiating Differences
Failing to Identify Options
Really Listening to Someone with a Different Worldview
Conclusions
Problems Resulting From Group Membership
Therapists' Contributions to Problems
Translating Language and Ideas Across Worldviews
Objectivity in Diagnosis and Treatment
Therapeutic Stances with Culturally Different Clients
Clients' Contributions to Problems
Cultural Mistrust and Resistance
Therapists' and Clients' Contributions
Racial Identity Development
Racial Identity Matches and Other Similarities
Transference and Countertransference
Role of Racial Identity
White and Affluence-Related Guilt
Idealization of Others
Nonspecific Mismatches
Addressing Group Differences Successfully
Conclusions
Engaging Clients in a Multicultural Context
A Model of Engagement in Therapy
The Importance of Distress
Expected Benefits from Disclosing
Costs of Change
The Value of Listening and Being Listened To
Potential Benefits of Warm and Empathic Listening
The Importance of Understanding Clients and Their Worldview
Developing a Therapeutic Alliance
Overcoming Initial Barriers to Understanding
The Value of Understanding Important Contextual Factors
Building a Cognitive Understanding
Ignoring Differences
Handling Contextual Differences
Bridging the Gap
The Benefits of Respecting Clients and Seeing Their Strengths
The Value of Seeing Hope in Clients and in Their Situation
Actively Demonstrating Hope
Concretely Demonstrating Hope
The Importance of Communicating Understanding to Clients
Conclusions
The Telling and the Listening: Hearing Context
The Telling
Being Able to See the "Problem"
Stages of Change
Responses in Therapy
The Listening
Listening to the Client First
Just Listening
Listening for the Bigger Picture
Being Unaware of Context
Alternative Explanations
Choosing Stories
Conclusions
Egalitarian and Empowering Relationships
What Empowerment Is
Voices: Lost and Found
Cultural Values That Influence Decisions to Empower
Finding a Voice
Hearing Their Voices
What Empowerment Isn't
Empowering the Individual and the System
Obstacles to Being Empowering
Being Helpful
Clients in Crisis
Directiveness: When and Why
Needs: Met and Unmet
Using Long-term Goals to Identify Empowering Interventions
Therapy as Mentoring
Conclusions
Making Meaning
Meaning-related Health Outcomes
Post-traumatic Outcomes
Negative Post-traumatic Outcomes
Post-traumatic Growth and Positive Outcomes
The Meaning of Finding Meaning
Principle of Personal Deservedness
A Sense of Control and Hope
Disclosure or Isolation
Meaning-related Coping Strategies
Mode of Action
Many Paths to a Single Goal
Multiple Stories for the Telling
Choosing Stories That Heal
A Model for Making Meaning
Accept Clients' Meanings First
Develop Positive Meanings
Balance Responsibility with Control
Translate Insight into Action
Hopelessness and Courage
Visions of the Future
Conclusions
Blame, Responsibility, and Control
Hypotheses in Therapy
Blame
Therapeutic Blame
The Criticism-Blame-Shame Cycle
An Example: Aaron, a Child with Tourette's Syndrome
Invisible Handicaps
Strength-based Genograms
Countertransference
Strengths
Normal Social, Developmental, and Cultural Constraints
Strength-based Approaches
Responsibility
Responsibility Versus Blame
Responsibility Versus Irresponsibility
Multiple Determination of Problems
Other-Blame and Self-Blame
Conclusions: Finding a Balance
Finding Natural Supports: Outside and In
Community Supports
Nature of Support
Consequences of Support
Differential Consequences of Support
Cultural Differences
Different Kinds of Supports
Formal and Informal Supports
Ethical Issues
Real Versus Perceived Support
Internal Supports
Serving Community
Conclusions
Bringing It Into the Community: Group Identity and Group Transformation
Personal and Cultural Self-Esteem
Collectivism and Individualism
Culture-specific Development of Self-Esteem
Culture-specific Self-Esteem
Developing Cultural Self-Esteem
Useful Attributions About Prejudice and Discrimination
Black Is Beautiful
Acknowledging the Bad While Accepting Self
Changing the Community's Meanings
Secondary Victimization
Transforming Community
Justice and Forgiveness
Helping Individuals Change their Communities
Teaching Pigs to Fly
Breaking the Silence
Taking Over Their Voice
Empowerment Versus Validation
Failing to Act
Conclusions
Rediscovering a Sense of Balance
A Sense of Balance
Getting Out of Balance
Looking for Causes Solutions
The Way Back to Balance
Understanding Cultural and Developmental Norms
Making It Work
Using Psychosocial Histories
Finding Success
Doing Something Different
When Balancing Gets Difficult
Using the Tricks of the Trade
Attacking the Fear
When Doing the Same Old Thing Won't Work
Models and Mentors
Different Balance Points for Different People
Setting Mutually Agreed-Upon Goals
Conclusions
Highlighting Themes
Listen for Context
Respect Individual and Cultural Differences
Denigrated and Pathologized Differences Among Cultures
Values and Their Effects on Assessments
Caricatures of Cultural Values
Recognize and Address Power Differentials
Oppression and Unearned Privilege
Social Justice
Give Up Power and Expertise to Be Effective
Accept and Use Power When It Is Helpful
Think Systematically
Provide Services Relevant to Clients' Lives and Worldviews
Help Clients Recognize Available Supports
Help Clients Regain Balance
Reconsider the Goals of Therapy
Clients' Fears of Change
Symptom Reduction Versus Good Outcomes
Risks of Culturally Aware Therapy
Use Safety Nets
Make the Journey Toward Cultural Competency
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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