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Cognitive Psychology

ISBN-10: 0534514219
ISBN-13: 9780534514211
Edition: 4th 2006
List price: $147.95 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: Sternberg's text balances accessible writing, practical applications, and research scholarship, interweaving biology throughout the text. Utilizing the theme that human cognition has evolved over time as a means of adapting to our environment,  More...

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Book details

List price: $147.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Wadsworth
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 624
Size: 8.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.838
Language: English

Sternberg's text balances accessible writing, practical applications, and research scholarship, interweaving biology throughout the text. Utilizing the theme that human cognition has evolved over time as a means of adapting to our environment, Sternberg explores the basics of cognitive psychology through its coverage of cognitive neuroscience, attention and consciousness, perception, memory, knowledge representation, language, problem solving and creativity, decision making and reasoning, cognitive development, and intelligence. Sternberg provides the most comprehensive coverage of any cognitive psychology text available; a "from lab to life" approach covering theory, lab and field research, and applications to everyday life (like driving while talking on a cell phone and airport security).

Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology Defined
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology: Rationalism versus Empiricism
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology
Early Dialectics in the Psychology of Cognition
From Associationism to Behaviorism
Gestalt Psychology
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology
Early Role of Psychobiology
Add a Dash of Technology: Engineering and Computation
Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology
Goals of Research
Distinctive Research Methods
Key Issues and Fields within Cognitive Psychology
Underlying Themes in the Study of Cognitive Psychology
Key Ideas in Cognitive Psychology
Chapter Previews
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Cognitive Neuroscience
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
The Brain
Viewing the Structures and Functions of the Brain
Postmortem Studies
Animal Studies
Electrical Recordings
Static Imaging Techniques
Metabolic Imaging
Cognition in the Brain: Cerebral Cortex and Other Structures
Gross Anatomy of the Brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
Cerebral Cortex and Localization of Function
Brain Disorders
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Attention and Consciousness
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
The Nature of Attention and Consciousness
Preconscious Processing
Controlled versus Automatic Processes
Habituation and Adaptation
Attention
Signal Detection
The Nature of Signal Detection
Vigilance
Search
Selective and Divided Attention
Basic Paradigms for Studying Selective Attention
Filter and Bottleneck Theories of Selective Attention
Attentional-Resource Theories of Selective Attention
Additional Considerations in Selective Attention
Divided Attention
Consciousness of Complex Mental Processes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Cognitive Neuroscientific Approaches to Attention and Consciousness
Attentional Systems
Using Event-Related Potentials to Measure Attention
A Psychopharmacological Approach
Links among Perception, Attention, and Consciousness
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Perception
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
From Sensation to Representation
Some Basic Concepts
Perceptual Constancies
Depth Perception
Approaches to Object and Form Perception
Theoretical Approaches to Perception
Bottom-Up Approaches: Direct Perception
Top-Down Approaches: Constructive Perception
Synthesizing the Two Approaches
A Computational Theory of Perception
Deficits in Perception
Agnosias
Anomalies in Color Perception
Akinetopsia
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Memory: Models and Research Methods
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Tasks Used for Measuring Memory
Recall versus Recognition Tasks
Implicit versus Explicit Memory Tasks
Traditional Model of Memory
Sensory Store
Short-Term Store
Long-Term Store
The Levels-of-Processing Model
An Integrative Model: Working Memory
Multiple-Memory-Systems
A Connectionist Perspective
Memory in the Real World
Exceptional Memory and Neuropsychology
Outstanding Memory: Mnemonists
Deficient Memory
Role of the Hippocampus and Other Structures
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Memory Processes
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Encoding and Transfer of Information
Forms of Encoding
Transfer of Information from Short-Term Memory to Long-Term Memory
Retrieval
Retrieval from Short-Term Memory
Retrieval from Long-Term Memory
Processes of Forgetting and Memory Distortion
Interference versus Decay Theory
The Constructive Nature of Memory
Autobiographical Memory
Memory Distortions
Context Effects on Encoding and Retrieval
Memory Development
Metacognitive Skills and Memory Development
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Representation and Manipulation of Knowledge in Memory: Images and Propositions
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Mental Representation of Knowledge
External Representations: Pictures versus Words
Mental Imagery
Dual-Code Theory: Analogical Images versus Symbols
Propositional Theory
Mental Manipulations of Images
Mental Rotations
Image Scaling
Image Scanning
Synthesizing Images and Propositions
Epiphenomena and Demand Characteristics
Johnson-Laird's Mental Models
Neuropsychological Evidence for Multiple Codes
Visual versus Spatial Images
Spatial Cognition and Cognitive Maps
Rats, Bees, and Humans
Mental Shortcuts
Text Maps
Development of Visuospatial Skills
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Representation and Organization of Knowledge in Memory: Concepts, Categories, Networks, and Schemas
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Organization of Declarative Knowledge
Concepts and Categories
Semantic Network Models
Schematic Representations
Representations of Procedural Knowledge
Integrative Models for Representing Declarative and Nondeclarative Knowledge
Combining Representations: ACT-R
Models Based on the Human Brain
Parallel Processing: The Connectionist Model
How Domain General or Domain Specific Is Cognition?
Key Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Language: Nature and Acquisition
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Properties of Language
General Description
Fundamental Aspects of Language
Processes of Language Comprehension
Speech Perception
Semantics and Syntax
Language Acquisition
Stages of Language Acquisition
Nature and Nurture
Beyond the First Years
Animal Language
Common Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Language in Context
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Reading: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes
Perceptual Issues in Reading
Lexical Processes in Reading
Language and Thought
Differences among Languages
Bilingualism and Dialects
Slips of the Tongue
Metaphorical Language
Language in a Social Context
Speech Acts
Conversational Postulates
Gender and Language
Discourse and Reading Comprehension
Neuropsychology of Language
Aphasia
Autism
Lesion Studies and Event-Related Potentials Research
Other Methods
Common Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Problem Solving and Creativity
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
The Problem-Solving Cycle
Types of Problems
Well-Structured Problems
Ill-Structured Problems and the Role of Insight
Obstacles and Aids to Problem Solving
Mental Sets, Entrenchment, and Fixation
Negative and Positive Transfer
Incubation
Expertise: Knowledge and Problem Solving
Organization of Knowledge
Innate Talent and Acquired Skill
Creativity
It's How Much You Produce
It's What You Know
It's Who You Are
It's Where You Are
All of the Above
Types of Creative Contributions
Common Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Decision Making and Reasoning
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Judgment and Decision Making
Classical Decision Theory
Satisficing
Elimination by Aspects
Heuristics and Biases
Deductive Reasoning
Conditional Reasoning
Syllogistic Reasoning
Linear Syllogisms
Further Aids and Obstacles to Deductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Reaching Causal Inferences
Categorical Inferences
Reasoning by Analogy
Development of Inductive Reasoning
An Alternative View of Reasoning
Common Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Human and Artificial Intelligence
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
Measures and Structures of Intelligence
Spearman: The "g" Factor
Thurstone: Primary Mental Abilities
Guilford: The Structure of Intellect
Cattell, Vernon, and Carroll: Hierarchical Models
Information Processing and Intelligence
Process-Timing Theories
Working Memory
Componential Theory and Complex Problem Solving
Biological Bases of Intelligence
Alternative Approaches to Intelligence
Cultural Context and Intelligence
Gardner: Multiple Intelligences
Sternberg: The Triarchic Theory
Improving Intelligence: Effective, Ineffective, and Questionable Strategies
Development of Intelligence in Adults
Artificial Intelligence: Computer Simulations
Can a Computer Program Be "Intelligent"?
Questions about the Intelligence of Intelligent Programs
Common Themes
Summary
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
Key Terms
Annotated Suggested Reading
Glossary
References

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