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General Overview | |

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References | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Introduction | |

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Measures of Location | |

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Some Properties of the Arithmetic Mean | |

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Measures of Spread | |

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Some Properties of the Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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The Coefficient of Variation | |

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Grouped Data | |

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Graphic Methods | |

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Case Study: Effects of Lead Exposure on Neurological and Psychological Function in Children | |

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Case Study: Effects of Tobacco Use of Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged Women | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Probability | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition of Probability | |

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Some Useful Probabilistic Notation | |

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The Multiplication Law of Probability | |

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The Addition Law of Probability | |

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Conditional Probability | |

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Bayes'' Rule and Screening Tests | |

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Prevalence and Incidence | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Discrete Probability Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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Random Variables | |

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The Probability Mass Function for a Discrete Random Variable | |

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The Expected Value of a Discrete Random Variable | |

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The Variance of a Discrete Random Variable | |

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The Cumulative-Distribution Function of a Discrete Random Variable | |

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Permutations and Combinations | |

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The Binomial Distribution | |

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Expected Value and Variance of the Binomial Distribution | |

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The Poisson Distribution | |

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Computation of Poisson Probabilities | |

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Expected Value and Variance of the Poisson Distribution | |

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Poisson Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Continuous Probability Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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General Concepts | |

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The Normal Distribution | |

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Properties of the Standard Normal Distribution | |

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Conversion from an N([mean], [variance]) Distribution to an N(0, 1) Distribution | |

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Linear Combinations of Random Variables | |

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Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

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Normal Approximation to the Poisson Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Estimation | |

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Introduction | |

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The Relationship Between Population and Sample | |

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Random-Number Tables | |

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Randomized Clinical Trials | |

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Estimation of the Mean of a Distribution | |

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Case Study: Relationship of Cigarette Smoking to Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Among Middle-Aged Women | |

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Estimation of the Variance of a Distribution | |

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Estimation for the Binomial Distribution | |

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Estimation for the Poisson Distribution | |

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One-Sided Confidence Intervals | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Inference | |

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Introduction | |

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General Concepts | |

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One-Sample Test for the Mean of a Normal Distribution: One-Sided Alternatives | |

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One-Sample Test for the Mean of a Normal Distribution: Two-Sided Alternatives | |

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The Power of a Test | |

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Sample-Size Determination | |

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The Relationship Between Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals | |

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One-Sample Chi-Squared Test for the Variance of a Normal Distribution | |

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One-Sample Test for a Binomial Proportion | |

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One-Sample Inference for the Poisson Distribution | |

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Case Study: Effects of Tobacco Use on Bone-Mineral Density in Middle-Aged Women | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Hypothesis Testing: Two-Sample Inference | |

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Introduction | |

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The Paired t Test | |

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Interval Estimation for the Comparison of Means from Two Paired Samples | |

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Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples with Equal Variances | |

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Interval Estimation for the Comparison of Means from Two Independent Samples (Equal Variance Case) | |

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Testing for the Equality of Two Variances | |

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Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples with Unequal Variances | |

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Case Study: Effects of Lead Exposure on Neurological and Psychological Function in Children | |

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The Treatment of Outliers | |

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Estimation of Sample Size and Power for Comparing Two Means | |

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Sample-Size Estimation for Longitudinal Studies | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Nonparametric Methods | |

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Introduction | |

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The Sign Test | |

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The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | |

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The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test | |

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Case Study: Effects of Lead Exposure on Neurological and Psychological Function in Children | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Hypothesis Testing: Categorical Data | |

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Introduction | |

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Two-Sample Test for Binomial Proportions | |

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Fisher''s Exact Test | |

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Two-Sample Test | |