| |

| |

| |

Drawing Statistical Conclusions | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Statistical Inference and Study Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Measuring Uncertainty in Randomized Experiments | |

| |

| |

| |

Measuring Uncertainty in Observational Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Inference Using t-Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

One-Sample t-Tools and the Paired t-Test | |

| |

| |

| |

A t-Ratio for Two-sample Inference | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences in a Two-Treatment Randomized Experiment | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

A Closer Look at Assumptions | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Robustness of the Two-Sample t-Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance of the Two-Sample t-Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Strategies for the Two-Sample Problem | |

| |

| |

| |

Transformations of the Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Alternatives to the t-Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

The Rank-Sum Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Alternatives for Two Independent Samples | |

| |

| |

| |

Alternatives for Paired Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparisons Among Several Samples | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparing Any Two of the Several Means | |

| |

| |

| |

The One-Way Analysis of Variance F-Test | |

| |

| |

| |

More Applications of the Extra-Sum-of-Squares F-Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Robustness and Model Checking | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Linear Combinations and Multiple Comparisons of Means | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences About Linear Combinations of Group Means | |

| |

| |

| |

Simultaneous Inferences | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Multiple Comparison Procedures | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Linear Regression: A Model for the Mean | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

The Simple Linear Regression Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Least Squares Regression Estimation | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferential Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

A Closer Look at Assumptions for Simple Linear Regression | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Robustness of Least Squares Inferences | |

| |

| |

| |

Graphical Tools for Model Assessment | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpretation After Log Transformations | |

| |

| |

| |

Assessment of Fit Using the Analysis of Variance | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple Regression | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Regression Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

Specially Constructed Explanatory Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

A Strategy for Data Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Graphical Methods for Data Exploration and Presentation | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferential Tools for Multiple Regression | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences About Regression Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

Extra-Sums-of-Squares F-Tests | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Model Checking and Refinement | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Residual Plots | |

| |

| |

| |

A Strategy for Dealing with Influential Observations | |

| |

| |

| |

Case-Influence Statistics | |

| |

| |

| |

Refining the Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Strategies for Variable Selection | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Specific Issues Relating to Many Explanatory Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Sequential Variable Selection Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Model Selection Among All Subsets | |

| |

| |

| |

Posterior Beliefs About Different Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Sex Discrimination Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

The Analysis of Variance for Two-Way Classifications | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Additive and Nonadditive Models for Two-Way Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Seaweed Grazer Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Pygmalion Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Multifactor Studies Without Replication | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Strategies for Analyzing Tables with One Observation per Cell | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Chimpanzee Learning Times Study | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Soybean Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Adjustment for Serial Correlation | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparing the Means of Two Time Series | |

| |

| |

| |

Regression After Transformation in the AR(1) Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Determining if Serial Correlation is Present | |

| |

| |

| |

Diagnostic Procedures for Judging the Adequacy of the AR(1) Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Repeated Measures and Other Multivariate Responses | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Tools and Strategies for Analyzing Repeated Measures | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparing the Means of Bivariate Responses in Two Groups | |

| |

| |

| |

One-Sample Analysis with Bivariate Responses | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Exploratory Tools for Summarizing Multivariate Responses | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Linear Combinations of Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Principal Components Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Canonical Correlations Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction to Other Multivariate Tools | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparisons of Proportions or Odds | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences for the Difference of Two Proportions | |

| |

| |

| |

Inference About the Ratio of Two Odds | |

| |

| |

| |

Inference from Retrospective Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

More Tools for Tables of Counts | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Population Models for 2 x 2 Tables of Counts | |

| |

| |

| |

The Chi-Squared Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Fisher's Exact Test: The Randomization (Permutation) Test for 2 x 2 Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

Combining Results from Several Tables with Equal Odds Ratios | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Logistic Regression for Binary Response Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

The Logistic Regression Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Estimation of Logistic Regression Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

The Drop-In-Deviance Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Strategies for Data Analysis Using Logistic Regression | |

| |

| |

| |

Analyses of Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Logistic Regression for Binomial Counts | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Logistic Regression for Binomial Responses | |

| |

| |

| |

Model Assessment | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences about Logistic Regression Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

Extra-Binomial Variation | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of Moth Predation Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Log-Linear Regression for Poisson Counts | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Studies | |

| |

| |

| |

Log-Linear Regression for Poisson Responses | |

| |

| |

| |

Model Assessment | |

| |

| |

| |

Inferences about Log-Linear Regression Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

Extra-Poisson Variation and the Log-Linear Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issues | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Elements of Research Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Study | |

| |

| |

| |

Considerations in Forming Research Objectives | |

| |

| |

| |

Research Design Tool Kit | |

| |

| |

| |

Design Choices that Affect Accuracy and Precision | |

| |

| |

| |

Choosing a Sample Size | |

| |

| |

| |

Steps in Designing a Study | |

| |

| |

| |

Related Issue--A Factor of Four | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Study Designs for Discussion | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Factorial Treatment Arrangements and Blocking Designs | |

| |

| |

| |

Case Study | |

| |

| |

| |

Treatments | |

| |

| |

| |

Factorial Arrangement of Treatment Levels | |

| |

| |

| |

Blocking | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Exercises | |

| |

| |

Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

Computational Exercises | |

| |

| |

Data Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to Conceptual Exercises | |

| |

| |

| |

Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

Probabilities of the Standard Normal Distribution | |

| |

| |

| |

Selected Percentiles of t-Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Selected Percentiles of Chi-Squared Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Selected Percentiles of F-Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Selected Percentiles of Studentized Range Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Bibliography | |

| |

| |

Index | |