| |

| |

Introduction to Thermal Sciences | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Concepts, Definitions, and Basic Principles | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamic Systems and Control Volumes | |

| |

| |

| |

Macroscopic Description | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties and State of a System | |

| |

| |

| |

Equilibrium, Processes, and Cycles | |

| |

| |

| |

Units | |

| |

| |

| |

Density, Specific Volume, and Specific Weight | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties of Pure Substances | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The p-v-T Surface | |

| |

| |

| |

The Liquid-Vapor Region | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties of Steam | |

| |

| |

| |

Steam Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

TK Solver | |

| |

| |

| |

Equations of State | |

| |

| |

| |

Equations of State for a Nonideal Gas | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Work and Heat | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Definition of Work | |

| |

| |

| |

Quasi-equilibrium Work Due to a Moving Boundary | |

| |

| |

| |

Nonequilibrium Work | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Work Modes | |

| |

| |

| |

Heat Transfer | |

| |

| |

| |

Conduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Convection | |

| |

| |

| |

Radiation | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law Applied to a Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law Applied to a Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Enthalpy | |

| |

| |

| |

Latent Heat | |

| |

| |

| |

Specific Heats | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law Applied to Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

General Formulation for Control Volumes | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law Applied to Control Volumes | |

| |

| |

| |

Transient Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

The First Law with Heat Transfer Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators | |

| |

| |

| |

Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Reversibility | |

| |

| |

| |

The Carnot Engine | |

| |

| |

| |

Carnot Efficiency | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy for an Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy for an Ideal Gas with Variable Specific Heats | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy Change for Substances Such As Steam, Solids, and Liquids | |

| |

| |

| |

The Inequality of Clausius | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy Change for an Irreversible Process | |

| |

| |

| |

The Second Law Applied to a Control Volume | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Power and Refrigeration Vapor Cycles | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Rankine Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

A Possible Steam Carnot Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

Rankine Cycle Efficiency | |

| |

| |

| |

The Reheat Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Regenerative Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

Effect of Losses on Power Cycle Efficiency | |

| |

| |

| |

The Vapor-Refrigeration Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Heat Pump | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Power and Refrigeration Gas Cycles | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Air-Standard Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Carnot Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Otto Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Diesel Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Brayton Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Regenerative Brayton Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Combined Brayton-Rankine Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

The Gas-Refrigeration Cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Psychrometrics | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Gas-Vapor Mixtures | |

| |

| |

| |

Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures | |

| |

| |

| |

The Psychrometric Chart | |

| |

| |

| |

Air-Conditioning Processes | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Combustion | |

| |

| |

| |

Combustion Equations | |

| |

| |

| |

Enthalpy of Formation, Enthalpy of Combustion, and the First Law | |

| |

| |

| |

Adiabatic Flame Temperature | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluid Mechanics | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Dimensions, Units, and Physical Quantities | |

| |

| |

| |

Continuum View of Gases and Liquids | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure and Temperature Scales | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluid Properties | |

| |

| |

| |

Density and Specific Weight | |

| |

| |

| |

Viscosity | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressibility | |

| |

| |

| |

Surface Tension | |

| |

| |

| |

Vapor Pressure | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation Laws | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamic Properties and Relationships | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties of an Ideal Gas | |

| |

| |

| |

First Law of Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Thermodynamic Quantities | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluid Statics | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure at Point | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure Variation | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluids at Rest | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressures in Liquids at Rest | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressures in the Atmosphere | |

| |

| |

| |

Manometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Forces on Plane Areas | |

| |

| |

| |

Forces on Curved Surfaces | |

| |

| |

| |

Buoyancy | |

| |

| |

| |

Linearly Accelerating Containers | |

| |

| |

| |

Rotating Containers | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction to Fluids in Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Description of Fluid Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Lagrangian and Eulerian Disciplines of Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Pathlines, Streaklines, and Streamlines | |

| |

| |

| |

Acceleration | |

| |

| |

| |

Angular Velocity and Vorticity | |

| |

| |

| |

Classification of Fluid Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Viscous and Inviscid Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Laminar and Turbulent Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Incompressible and Compressible Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

The Bernoulli Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

The Integral Forms of the Fundamental Laws | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Three Basic Laws | |

| |

| |

| |

System-to-Control-Volume Transformation | |

| |

| |

| |

Simplifications of the System-to-Control-Volume Transformation | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation of Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Work-Rate Term | |

| |

| |

| |

General Energy Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Steady Uniform Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Steady Nonuniform Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Momentum Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

General Momentum Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Steady Uniform Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Momentum Equation Applied to Deflectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Steady Nonuniform Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Dimensional Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Motivation | |

| |

| |

| |

Review of Dimensions | |

| |

| |

| |

Buckingham [pi]-Theorem | |

| |

| |

| |

Common Dimensionless Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

Similitude | |

| |

| |

| |

General Information | |

| |

| |

| |

Confined Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Free-Surface Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Reynolds-Number Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressible Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Periodic Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Internal Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Entrance Flow and Developed Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Laminar Flow in a Pipe | |

| |

| |

| |

Laminar Flow between Parallel Plates | |

| |

| |

| |

Laminar Flow between Rotating Cylinders | |

| |

| |

| |

Turbulent Flow in a Pipe | |

| |

| |

| |

Differential Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Velocity Profile | |

| |

| |

| |

Losses in Developed Pipe Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Losses in Noncircular Conduits | |

| |

| |

| |

Minor Losses in Pipe Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Pipe System with a Pump | |

| |

| |

| |

Uniform Turbulent Flow in Open Channels | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

External Flows | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Separation | |

| |

| |

| |

Flow around Immersed Bodies | |

| |

| |

| |

Drag Coefficients | |

| |

| |

| |

Vortex Shedding | |

| |

| |

| |

Streamlining | |

| |

| |

| |

Cavitation | |

| |

| |

| |

Added Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Lift and Drag on Airfoils | |

| |

| |

| |

Potential Flow Theory | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Flow Equations | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Solutions | |

| |

| |

| |

Superposition | |

| |

| |

| |

Boundary Layer Theory | |

| |

| |

| |

General Background | |

| |

| |

| |

Von Karman Integral Equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Approximate Solution to the Laminar Boundary Layer | |

| |

| |

| |

Turbulent Boundary Layer: Power-Law Form | |

| |

| |

| |

Turbulent Boundary Layer: Empirical Form | |

| |

| |

| |

Convection Heat Transfer | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure Gradient Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressible Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Speed of Sound and the Mach Number | |

| |

| |

| |

Isentropic Nozzle Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Normal Shock Wave | |

| |

| |

| |

Shock Waves in Converging-Diverging Nozzles | |

| |

| |

| |

Oblique Shock Waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Isentropic Expansion Waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Appendix | |

| |

| |

| |

Units and Conversions | |

| |

| |

| |

Material Properties | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamic Properties of Water (Steam Tables) | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamic Properties of Freon 12 | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia | |

| |

| |

| |

Ideal-Gas Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

Psychrometric Charts | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressibility Chart | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressible-Flow Tables for Air | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties of Areas and Volumes | |

| |

| |

| |

Vector Relations | |

| |

| |

Answers to Selected Problems | |

| |

| |

Index | |