Elements of Statistics with Applications to Economics and the Social Sciences

ISBN-10: 0534371116

ISBN-13: 9780534371111

Edition: 2002

List price: $280.95 Buy it from $2.93
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Description:

Designed for instructors who want to stress the understanding of basic concepts and the development of "statistical intuition," this book demonstrates that statistical reasoning is everywhere and that statistical concepts are as important to students' personal lives as they are to their future professional careers. Ramsey aims to develop statistically literacy - from the ability to read and think critically about statistics published in popular media to the ability to analyze and act upon statistics gathered in the business world. The underlying philosophy of this book is that given a reasonable level of depth in the analysis, the student can later acquire a much more extensive, and even more intensive, exposure to statistics on their own or in the context of the work environment. Some use of calculus is included. Use of the computer is integrated throughout.
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Book details

List price: $280.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 8/15/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 680
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.640
Language: English

Preface
Introduction and Fundamental Ideas
Statistics as Science
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Statistics: A Framework for Decision Making
Statistics and the Methodology of Science
Statistics as a Science
The Subject Matter of Statistics
Statistics and Science Interwined
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Addendum for the Reader
Exercises
Types of Variables, Measurements, and Explanation
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Types of Variables
Cardinal Measurement
Ordinal Measurement
Categorical Variables
Indices
Time Series
Random and Deterministic Variables
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Descriptive Statistics
How to Describe and Summarize Random Data by Graphical Procedures
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Describing Data by Box-and-Whisker Plots
The Median
The Range
Quartiles
Box-and-Whisker Plots
Plotting Relative Frequencies
Cumulative Frequencies
Histogram
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Moments and the Shape of Histograms
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
The Mean, a Measure of Location
An Aside on Notation
Averaging Grouped Data
Interpreting the Mean
The Second Moment as a Measure of Spread
General Definition of Moments
The Third Moment as a Measure of Skewness
The Fourth Moment as a Measure of Peakedness, or "Fat Tails"
Standardized Moments
Some Practical Uses for Higher Moments
Standardization of Variables
The Higher Moments about the Origin
Higher Moments and Grouped Data
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
The Description of Bivariate Data
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Three-Dimensional Histograms
Scatter Plots
Standardization for Pairs of Random Variables
Covariation and m[subscript 11], the First Cross Product Moment
Linear Statistical Relationships and the Correlation Coefficient
The Correlation Coefficient and Slope
Rank Correlation
Bivariate Categorical Data
Row Comparisons
Column Comparisons
Joint Comparisons
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Probability and Distribution Theory
The Theory of Statistics: An Introduction
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
The Theory: First Steps
The Sample Space
Introducing Probabilities
Probabilities of Unions and Joint Events
A Mathematical Digression
Calculating the Probabilities of the Union of Events
The Definition of Probability for Sample Spaces of Discrete Events
Conditional Probability
Summing Up the Many Definitions of Probability
Random Variables: Intuition Made Formal
An Example Using Two Random Variables
Statistical Independence
Application of the Results to Continuous Random Variables
Consequences of the Equally Likely Principle
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Excercises
The Generation and Description of Discrete Probability Distributions
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Combinations and Permutations
Generating Binomial Probabilities
The Convolution Sum
Deriving the Binomial Distribution
Parameters and the Shape of the Probability Distribution
Theoretical Moments and the Shape of the Probability Distribution
Expectation
Moment-Generating Functions for Discrete Variables
The Cumulative Distribution Function
The Poisson Probability Distribution
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
The Generation of Some Continuous Probability Distributions
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
How to Express Probability in Terms of Continuous Random Variables
Theoretical Moments and Density Functions
The Uniform Distribution
The Normal, or Gaussian, Density Function and the Central Limit Theorem
Standard Deviation and the Nonstandard Gaussian
The Gaussian, or Normal, Distribution as an Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
Moment-Generating Functions for Continuous Variables
The Chebyshev Inequality
Terminology
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Basic Principles of Inference
Elementary Sampling Theory
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
An Illustrative Example
An Introduction to the Theory of Simple Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Estimation of Theoretical Moments and the Parameters of Probability Distributions
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Estimating Theoretical Moments: Large Sample Results
Estimating Moments and Parameters: Confidence Intervals and Small Sample Results
Estimating a Binomial Probability
Estimating the Poisson Parameter
The Student's T Distribution
The Chi-square Distribution and Confidence Intervals for the Variance
Maximum Likelihood Estimators
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Hypothesis Testing: How to Discriminate between Two Alternatives
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
The Basic Idea of Hypotheses Tests
A Digression on the Interpretation of Rejection Regions
How to Choose an Optimal Decision Rule
Why Type I Error Is Usually Small
The Special Rofe of the Null Hypothesis
Simple and Composite Hypotheses Tests
Two-Sided Hypotheses Tests
Tests of Proportions
Hypotheses Tests When the Variance Is Unknown
Testing the Difference between Two Means
An Aside on Statistical Significance
P Values
Some Practical Examples
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Bivariate Distributions, Regression, and ANOVA
The Generation of Bivariate and Conditional Probability Distributions
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
Some Pragmatic Examples
The Generation of a Bivariate Discrete Distribution
The Generation of a Bivariate Continuous Distribution
The Conditional Normal Density Function
Moments of Joint and Conditional Density Functions
Bivariate and Conditional Distributions Obtained by Sampling
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Unility?
Exercises
The Theory and Practice of Regression Analysis
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
The Regression Model
Estimation and Inference: The Basics
The Coefficient of Determination and the Degree of Fit
Estimation and Inference: Confidence Intervals and Hypotheses Tests
Confidence Intervals for the Regression Parameters
Predicting the Dependent Variable
Confidence Intervals for the Error Term Standard Deviation
The F Distribution and Measuring the Goodness of Fit
Testing Hypotheses in Regression Equations
Calculations
The "Regression" in Regression Analysis
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Comparing Populations through the Analysis of Variance
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
An Introduction to One-Way Analysis of Variance
For Multiple Treatments, Which Is Best?
The Link to Regression Analysis
Summary
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
Exercises
Retrospective
Retrospective
What You Will Learn in This Chapter
Introduction
A Schematic Review of What You Have Learned
The Role of Statistics in Everyday Life
Case Study: Was There Age Discrimination in a Public Utility?
The Relationship between Science and Statistics
What Might You Learn Next in Statistics?
Exercises
Appendixes
Mathematical Appendix: Review of Concepts and Conventions
Notational Conventions
Indexing
Sigma Notation
Elementary Set Theory
Elements of Calculus
Exercises
Directions for Using the Student Version of S-Plus 4.5
Installing, Starting, and Closing S-Plus
Using S-Plus in This Text
General Notes about S-Plus
Data Files
Windows in S-Plus
Menu Bar Commands
Probability and Density Calculations
Statistical Tables
Supplemental Material
Nonparametric Measures
Bayesian Inference
Index
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