Biological Psychology

ISBN-10: 0534211089
ISBN-13: 9780534211080
Edition: 5th 1995
Authors: James W. Kalat
List price: $59.75
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Book details

List price: $59.75
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 1995
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 688
Size: 7.87" wide x 9.84" long
Weight: 3.432

James W. Kalat is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at North Carolina State University, where he taught courses in introduction to psychology and biological psychology from 1977 through 2012. He received an AB degree summa cum laude from Duke University and a PhD in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania. He is also the author of INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY (10th Edition) and co-author with Michelle Shiota of EMOTION (2nd Edition). In addition to textbooks, he has written journal articles on taste-aversion learning, the teaching of psychology, and other topics. He was twice the program chair for the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, now named the Association for Psychological Science.

The Major Issuesp. 1
The Mind-Brain Relationshipp. 2
Biological Explanations of Behaviorp. 3
The Brain and Conscious Experiencep. 5
In Closing: The Biology of Experiencep. 7
Nature and Nurturep. 9
The Genetics of Behaviorp. 9
Mendelian Geneticsp. 9
Heritabilityp. 11
How Genes Affect Behaviorp. 12
The Evolution of Behaviorp. 13
Common Misunderstandings About Evolutionp. 13
Sociobiologyp. 16
In Closing: Genes and Behaviorp. 17
The Use of Animals in Researchp. 19
Reasons for Animal Researchp. 19
The Ethical Debatep. 19
In Closing: Humans and Animalsp. 22
Prospects for Further Studyp. 24
Termsp. 25
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 25
Web Sites to Explorep. 25
Active Learner Linkp. 26
Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulsesp. 29
The Cells of the Nervous Systemp. 30
Neurons and Gliap. 30
The Structures of an Animal Cellp. 30
Santiago Ramon y Cajalp. 31
The Structure of a Neuronp. 32
Variations Among Neuronsp. 34
Gliap. 35
The Blood-Brain Barrierp. 36
Why We Need a Blood-Brain Barrierp. 36
How the Blood-Brain Barrier Worksp. 37
The Nourishment of Vertebrate Neuronsp. 37
In Closing: Neuronsp. 38
The Nerve Impulsep. 39
The Resting Potential of the Neuronp. 39
The Forces Behind the Resting Potentialp. 40
Why a Resting Potential?p. 41
The Action Potentialp. 42
The Molecular Basis of the Action Potentialp. 42
The All-or-None Lawp. 44
The Refractory Periodp. 44
Propagation of the Action Potentialp. 44
The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conductionp. 45
Signaling Without Action Potentialsp. 46
On the Growth of Neurons and the Growth of Misconceptionsp. 47
In Closing: Neural Messagesp. 47
Termsp. 48
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 49
Web Sites to Explorep. 49
Active Learner Linkp. 49
Communication Within the Body: Synapses and Hormonesp. 51
The Concept of the Synapsep. 52
The Properties of Synapsesp. 52
Speed of a Reflex and Delayed Transmission at the Synapsep. 52
Temporal Summationp. 52
Spatial Summationp. 54
Inhibitory Synapsesp. 54
Relationship Among EPSP, IPSP, and Action Potentialp. 56
In Closing: The Neuron as Decision Makerp. 56
Chemical Events at the Synapsep. 58
The Discovery That Most Synaptic Transmission Is Chemicalp. 58
The Sequence of Chemical Events at a Synapsep. 59
Types of Neurotransmittersp. 59
Synthesis of Transmittersp. 60
Transport of Transmittersp. 61
Release and Diffusion of Transmittersp. 62
Activation of Receptors of the Postsynaptic Cellp. 62
Inactivation and Reuptake of Neurotransmittersp. 65
In Closing: Neurotransmitters and Behaviorp. 66
Synapses, Abused Drugs, and Behaviorp. 68
How Drugs Affect Synapsesp. 68
Synapses, Reinforcement, and Drug Usep. 69
Electrical Self-Stimulation of the Brainp. 69
Effects of Stimulant Drugs on Dopamine Synapsesp. 70
PET Scansp. 72
Nicotinep. 72
Opiatesp. 72
PCPp. 73
Marijuanap. 74
Hallucinogenic Drugsp. 74
Caffeinep. 74
Alcoholp. 75
Synapses, Reinforcement, and Personalityp. 75
In Closing: Drugs and Behaviorp. 76
Hormones and Behaviorp. 78
Mechanisms of Hormone Actionsp. 78
Control of Hormone Releasep. 81
In Closing: Hormones and the Nervous Systemp. 83
Termsp. 84
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 84
Web Sites to Explorep. 85
Active Learner Linkp. 85
Anatomy of the Nervous Systemp. 87
The Divisions of the Vertebrate Nervous Systemp. 88
Some Terminologyp. 88
The Spinal Cordp. 89
The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 91
Goosefleshp. 93
The Hindbrainp. 93
The Midbrainp. 95
The Forebrainp. 96
Thalamusp. 96
Hypothalamusp. 97
Pituitary Glandp. 97
Basal Gangliap. 97
Basal Forebrainp. 99
Hippocampusp. 99
The Ventriclesp. 99
In Closing: Structures of the Nervous Systemp. 100
The Cerebral Cortexp. 102
Organization of the Cerebral Cortexp. 102
The Occipital Lobep. 103
The Parietal Lobep. 103
The Temporal Lobep. 105
The Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomiesp. 106
The Frontal Lobep. 106
How Do the Pieces Work Together?p. 107
Does the Brain Operate as a Whole or as
A Collection of Parts?p. 108
The Binding Problemp. 108
In Closing: Functions of the Cerebral Cortexp. 111
Termsp. 112
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 113
Web Sites to Explorep. 113
Active Learner Linkp. 113
Development and Plasticity of the Brainp. 115
Development of the Brainp. 116
Growth and Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brainp. 116
Growth and Development of Neuronsp. 117
Determinants of Neuron Survivalp. 118
Pathfinding by Axonsp. 120
Chemical Pathfinding by Axonsp. 120
Competition Among Axons as a General Principlep. 122
Fine-Tuning by Experiencep. 122
Effects of Experience on Dendritic Branchingp. 123
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)p. 124
Generation of New Neuronsp. 124
Effects of Experience on Human Brain Structuresp. 125
Combinations of Chemical and Experiential Effectsp. 126
Proportional Growth of Brain Areasp. 126
MRI Scansp. 128
The Vulnerable Developing Brainp. 128
Attention-Deficit Disorder: Mixed Abnormalities of Brain Developmentp. 129
In Closing: Brain Developmentp. 130
Recovery of Function After Brain Damagep. 132
Causes of Human Brain Damagep. 132
Why Don't Woodpeckers Get Concussions?p. 133
Adjustments and Potential Recovery After Brain Damagep. 135
Learned Adjustments in Behaviorp. 135
Lesionsp. 136
Diaschisisp. 136
The Regrowth of Axonsp. 137
Sproutingp. 138
Denervation Supersensitivityp. 138
Autoradiographyp. 139
Reorganized Sensory Representations and the Phantom Limbp. 140
Histochemistryp. 142
Effects of Agep. 143
Therapiesp. 145
Behavioral Interventionsp. 145
Drugsp. 146
Brain Graftsp. 146
In Closing: Brain Damage and Recoveryp. 146
Termsp. 148
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 148
Web Sites to Explorep. 148
Active Learner Linkp. 148
Visionp. 151
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptorsp. 152
Reception, Transduction, and Codingp. 152
From Neuronal Activity to Perceptionp. 152
General Principles of Sensory Codingp. 153
The Eye and Its Connections to the Brainp. 153
The Foveap. 153
The Route Within the Retinap. 155
Visual Receptors: Rods and Conesp. 156
Color Visionp. 157
The Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theoryp. 158
The Opponent-Process Theoryp. 159
The Retinex Theoryp. 159
Color Vision Deficiencyp. 161
In Closing: Visual Receptorsp. 161
The Neural Basis of Visual Perceptionp. 163
An Overview of the Mammalian Visual Systemp. 163
Mechanisms of Processing in the Visual Systemp. 163
Receptive Fieldsp. 163
Lateral Inhibitionp. 166
Concurrent Pathways in the Visual Systemp. 167
In the Retina and Lateral Geniculatep. 168
In the Cerebral Cortexp. 168
The Cerebral Cortex: The Shape Pathwayp. 170
Hubel and Wiesel's Cell Types in the Primary Visual Cortexp. 170
Microelectrode Recordingsp. 171
The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortexp. 171
Are Visual Cortex Cells Feature Detectors?p. 172
Shape Analysis Beyond Areas V1 and V2p. 173
Disorders of Object Recognitionp. 174
fMRI Scansp. 175
The Cerebral Cortex: The Color Pathwayp. 176
The Cerebral Cortex: The Motion and Depth Pathwaysp. 176
Structures Important for Motion Perceptionp. 176
Motion Blindnessp. 177
Visual Attentionp. 177
The Binding Problem Revisited: Visual Consciousnessp. 178
Suppressed Vision During Eye Movementsp. 179
In Closing: Coordinating Separate Visual Pathwaysp. 179
Development of the Visual Systemp. 181
Infant Visionp. 181
Effects of Experience on Visual Developmentp. 181
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of One Eyep. 182
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of Both Eyesp. 182
Restoration of Response After Early Deprivation of Visionp. 183
Uncorrelated Stimulation in Both Eyesp. 184
Early Exposure to a Limited Array of Patternsp. 184
Lack of Seeing Objects in Motionp. 185
Effects of Blindness on the Cortexp. 185
In Closing: Developing Visionp. 186
Termsp. 187
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 187
Web Sites to Explorep. 187
Active Learner Linkp. 188
The Nonvisual Sensory Systemsp. 191
Auditionp. 192
Sound and the Earp. 192
Physical and Psychological Dimensions of Soundp. 192
Structures of the Earp. 192
Pitch Perceptionp. 194
Frequency Theory and Place Theoryp. 194
Pitch Perception in the Cerebral Cortexp. 196
Hearing Lossp. 197
Localization of Soundsp. 198
In Closing: Functions of Hearingp. 199
The Mechanical Sensesp. 201
Vestibular Sensationp. 201
Somatosensationp. 201
Somatosensory Receptorsp. 201
Input to the Spinal Cord and the Brainp. 202
Ticklep. 203
Painp. 204
Pain Neurons and Their Neurotransmittersp. 205
Headachesp. 206
Pain and the Brainp. 206
Events That Limit Painp. 207
Stimuli That Produce Analgesiap. 208
The Pros and Cons of Morphine Analgesiap. 208
Sensitization of Painp. 209
In Closing: The Mechanical Sensesp. 210
The Chemical Sensesp. 211
General Issues About Chemical Codingp. 211
Tastep. 212
Taste Receptorsp. 212
How Many Kinds of Taste Receptors?p. 213
Mechanisms of Taste Receptorsp. 213
Individual Differences in Tastep. 213
Miracle Berries and the Modification of Taste Receptorsp. 214
How Do We Perceive Tastes?p. 214
Taste Coding in the Brainp. 214
Olfactionp. 215
Olfactory Receptorsp. 216
Behavioral Methods of Identifying Olfactory Receptorsp. 217
Biochemical Identification of Receptor Typesp. 217
Implications for Codingp. 217
Vomeronasal Sensation and Pheromonesp. 218
In Closing: Different Senses as Different Ways of Knowing the Worldp. 219
Termsp. 220
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 221
Web Sites to Explorep. 221
Active Learner Linkp. 221
Movementp. 223
The Control of Movementp. 224
Muscles and Their Movementsp. 224
Fast and Slow Musclesp. 226
Muscle Control by Proprioceptorsp. 226
Units of Movementp. 228
Voluntary and Involuntary Movementsp. 228
Movements with Different Sensitivity to Feedbackp. 228
Infant Reflexesp. 229
Sequences of Behaviorsp. 229
In Closing: Categories of Movementp. 230
Brain Mechanisms of Movementp. 231
The Role of the Cerebral Cortexp. 231
Areas Near the Primary Motor Cortexp. 232
Connections from the Brain to the Spinal Cordp. 235
The Role of the Cerebellump. 237
Evidence of a Broad Rolep. 237
Cellular Organizationp. 238
The Role of the Basal Gangliap. 240
In Closing: Possibilities for the Futurep. 241
Disorders of Movementp. 242
Parkinson's Diseasep. 242
Possible Causesp. 243
L-Dopa Treatmentp. 244
Therapies Other Than L-Dopap. 245
Huntington's Diseasep. 246
Heredity and Presymptomatic Testingp. 247
In Closing: Heredity and Environment in Movement Disordersp. 248
Termsp. 250
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 250
Web Sites to Explorep. 250
Active Learner Linkp. 251
Rhythms of Wakefulness and Sleepp. 253
Rhythms of Waking and Sleepingp. 254
Endogenous Cyclesp. 254
Setting and Resetting the Cyclep. 255
Duration of the Human Circadian Rhythmp. 255
Resetting the Biological Clockp. 256
Jet Lagp. 256
Shift Workp. 257
The Mechanisms of the Biological Clockp. 257
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)p. 257
How Light Resets the SCNp. 257
Melatoninp. 259
In Closing: Sleep-Wake Cyclesp. 259
Stages of Sleep and Brain Mechanismsp. 261
The Stages of Sleepp. 261
Electroencephalography (EEG)p. 262
Paradoxical or REM Sleepp. 262
Brain Mechanisms of Wakefulness and Arousalp. 264
Brain Structures of Arousalp. 264
Getting to Sleepp. 265
Brain Function in REM Sleepp. 267
Abnormalities of Sleepp. 268
Insomniap. 268
Sleep Apneap. 269
Narcolepsyp. 270
Periodic Limb Movement Disorderp. 270
REM Behavior Disorderp. 270
Night Terrors, Sleep Talking, or Sleepwalkingp. 271
In Closing: Stages of Sleepp. 271
Why Sleep? Why REM? Why Dreams?p. 273
The Functions of Sleepp. 273
The Repair and Restoration Theoryp. 273
The Evolutionary Theoryp. 273
Some Facts About Hibernationp. 274
The Functions of REM Sleepp. 274
Individual and Species Differencesp. 274
The Effects of REM Sleep Deprivationp. 276
Hypothesesp. 276
Biological Perspectives on Dreamingp. 277
The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesisp. 277
A Clinico-Anatomical Hypothesisp. 278
In Closing: Our Limited Self-Understandingp. 278
Termsp. 279
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 279
Web Sites to Explorep. 279
Active Learner Linkp. 279
The Regulation of Internal Body Statesp. 281
Temperature Regulationp. 282
Homeostasisp. 282
Controlling Body Temperaturep. 282
The Advantages of Constant Body Temperaturep. 282
Surviving in Extreme Coldp. 283
Brain Mechanismsp. 285
Behavioral Mechanismsp. 286
Feverp. 286
Temperature Regulation and Behaviorp. 286
The Development of Animal Behaviorp. 286
The Tonic Immobility Responsep. 287
In Closing: Temperature and Behaviorp. 287
Thirstp. 289
Mechanisms of Water Regulationp. 289
Osmotic Thirstp. 289
Hypovolemic Thirstp. 291
Mechanismsp. 291
Sodium-Specific Cravingsp. 291
In Closing: The Psychology and Biology of Thirstp. 292
Hungerp. 294
How the Digestive System Influences Food Selectionp. 295
Enzymes and Consumption of Dairy Productsp. 295
Other Influences on Food Selectionp. 295
How Taste and Digestion Control Hunger and Satietyp. 296
Oral Factorsp. 296
The Stomach and Intestinesp. 297
Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagonp. 297
The Hypothalamus and Feeding Regulationp. 299
The Lateral Hypothalamusp. 299
Medial Areas of the Hypothalamusp. 300
Using Multiple Research Methodsp. 301
Satiety Chemicals and Eating Disordersp. 302
Leptinp. 302
Neuropeptide Yp. 303
Other Neuromodulators and Hormonesp. 304
Microdialysisp. 305
Genetics, Metabolic Rate, and Body Weightp. 305
Weight-Loss Techniquesp. 306
Anorexia and Bulimiap. 306
In Closing: The Multiple Controls of Hungerp. 307
Termsp. 308
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 309
Web Sites to Explorep. 309
Active Learner Linkp. 309
Reproductive Behaviorsp. 311
The Effects of Sex Hormonesp. 312
Organizing Effects of Sex Hormonesp. 312
Sex Differences in the Gonads and Hypothalamusp. 312
Sexual Differentiation in the Spotted Hyenap. 314
Sex Differences in Nonreproductive Characteristicsp. 315
Activating Effects of Sex Hormonesp. 315
Sexual Behavior in Rodentsp. 315
Behavior Influences Hormonal Secretionsp. 316
Sexual Behavior in Humansp. 316
Nonsexual Behaviorp. 319
Premenstrual Syndromep. 320
Pubertyp. 321
Parental Behaviorp. 321
In Closing: Sex-Related Behaviors and Motivationsp. 322
Variations in Sexual Development and Orientationp. 324
Determinants of Gender Identityp. 324
Intersexesp. 324
Testicular Feminizationp. 326
Discrepancies of Sexual Appearancep. 326
Possible Biological Bases of Sexual Orientationp. 327
Geneticsp. 327
Hormonesp. 328
Brain Anatomyp. 330
In Closing: We Are Not All the Samep. 331
Termsp. 332
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 332
Support Groupsp. 333
Web Sites to Explorep. 333
Active Learner Linkp. 333
Emotional Behaviorsp. 335
What Is Emotion, Anyway? And What Good Is It?p. 336
Are Emotions Useful?p. 337
Emotions and Readiness for Actionp. 338
In Closing: Emotions and the Mindp. 340
Stress and Healthp. 342
Stress and the Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 342
Psychosomatic Illnessesp. 342
Voodoo Death and Related Phenomenap. 343
Stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axisp. 344
The Immune Systemp. 344
Effects of Stress on the Immune Systemp. 346
Posttraumatic Stress Disorderp. 347
In Closing: Emotions and Body Reactionsp. 348
Attack and Escape Behaviorsp. 349
Attack Behaviorsp. 349
Heredity and Environment in Human Violencep. 349
Hormonesp. 351
Temporal Lobe and Violencep. 351
Serotonin Synapses and Aggressive Behaviorp. 352
Panic Disorderp. 354
Escape Behaviorsp. 354
Fear, Enhanced Fears, and the Amygdalap. 354
The Human Amygdalap. 356
Anxiety-Reducing Drugsp. 357
The Relationship Between Alcohol and Tranquilizersp. 359
In Closing: Understanding Emotions and Doing Something About Themp. 359
Termsp. 361
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 361
Web Sites to Explorep. 361
Active Learner Linkp. 361
The Biology of Learning and Memoryp. 363
Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioningp. 364
Localized Representations of Memoryp. 364
Lashley's Search for the Engramp. 364
The Modern Search for the Engramp. 366
Types of Memoryp. 368
Short-Term and Long-Term Memoryp. 368
Consolidation of Long-Term Memoriesp. 368
A Modified Theory: Working Memoryp. 369
The Hippocampus and Amnesiap. 370
Memory Loss After Hippocampal Damagep. 370
Theories of the Function of the Hippocampusp. 372
Other Types of Brain Damage and Amnesiap. 375
Korsakoff's Syndrome and Other Prefrontal Damagep. 375
Alzheimer's Diseasep. 376
What Amnesic Patients Teach Usp. 378
Infant Amnesiap. 378
In Closing: Different Types of Memoryp. 379
Storing Information in the Nervous Systemp. 381
Learning and the Hebbian Synapsep. 381
Single-Cell Mechanisms of Invertebrate Behavior Changep. 381
Blind Alleys and Abandoned Mines in Researchp. 382
Aplysia as an Experimental Animalp. 382
Habituation in Aplysiap. 382
Sensitization in Aplysiap. 383
Long-Term Potentiation in Mammalsp. 385
Biochemical Mechanismsp. 385
LTP and Behaviorp. 385
In Closing: The Physiology of Memoryp. 388
Termsp. 390
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 390
Web Sites to Explorep. 390
Active Learner Linkp. 391
Lateralization and Languagep. 393
Lateralization of Functionp. 394
Visual and Auditory Connections to the Hemispheresp. 395
Epilepsyp. 396
Cutting the Corpus Callosump. 396
Testing Hemispheric Dominance for Speechp. 398
Split Hemispheres: Competition and Cooperationp. 399
The Right Hemispherep. 399
Hemispheric Specializations in Intact Brainsp. 401
Development of Lateralization and Handednessp. 401
Anatomical Differences Between the Hemispheresp. 401
Maturation of the Corpus Callosump. 402
Development Without a Corpus Callosump. 402
Handedness and Language Dominancep. 403
Avoiding Overstatementsp. 403
In Closing: One Brain, Two Hemispheresp. 404
Evolution and Physiology of Languagep. 405
Nonhuman Precursors of Languagep. 405
Common Chimpanzeesp. 405
Bonobosp. 405
Nonprimatesp. 407
How Did Humans Evolve Language?p. 408
Language as a Product of Overall Intelligencep. 408
Language as a Special Modulep. 410
Is There a Critical Period for Language Learning?p. 411
Effects of Brain Damage on Languagep. 411
Broca's Aphasiap. 412
Phrenologyp. 413
Wernike's Aphasiap. 414
Beyond Broca and Wernickep. 414
Dyslexiap. 416
In Closing: Language and the Brainp. 418
Termsp. 420
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 420
Web Sites to Explorep. 420
Active Learner Linkp. 420
Alcoholism, Mood Disorders, and Schizophreniap. 423
Alcoholismp. 424
Geneticsp. 424
Alcohol Metabolism and Antabusep. 425
Risk Factors for Alcohol Abusep. 426
In Closing: Alcoholism and Addictionp. 427
Mood Disordersp. 428
Major Depressive Disorderp. 428
Geneticsp. 428
Triggering Depressed Episodesp. 429
Abnormalities of Hemispheric Dominancep. 429
Virusesp. 429
Accidental Discoveries of Psychiatric Drugsp. 430
Antidepressant Drugsp. 430
Other Therapiesp. 432
Bipolar Disorderp. 434
Geneticsp. 434
Treatmentsp. 434
Seasonal Affective Disorderp. 435
In Closing: The Biology of Mood Swingsp. 436
Schizophreniap. 438
Characteristicsp. 438
Behavioral Symptomsp. 438
Demographic Datap. 439
Differential Diagnosis of Psychological Disordersp. 440
Geneticsp. 440
Twin Studiesp. 440
Adopted Children Who Develop Schizophreniap. 441
Potentially More Decisive Evidencep. 441
Efforts to Locate a Genep. 442
The Neurodevelopmental Hypothesisp. 443
Prenatal and Neonatal Abnormalities of Developmentp. 443
Mild Brain Abnormalitiesp. 444
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Taskp. 445
Early Development and Later Psychopathologyp. 445
Neurotransmitters and Drugsp. 446
The Dopamine Hypothesisp. 446
The Glutamate Hypothesisp. 447
The Search for Improved Drugsp. 449
In Closing: The Fascination of Schizophreniap. 449
Termsp. 451
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 451
Web Sites to Explorep. 451
Active Learner Linkp. 451
Brief, Basic Chemistryp. 453
Society for Neuroscience Policies on the Use of Animals and Human Subjects in Neuroscience Researchp. 459
Referencesp. 462
Creditsp. 516
Theme Indexp. 520
Name Indexp. 522
Subject Index/Glossaryp. 533
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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