Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean

ISBN-10: 0521890616
ISBN-13: 9780521890618
Edition: 2002
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Description: Radiative transfer is important to a range of disciplines from the study of greenhouse warming to stellar atmospheres and ocean optics. This volume provides a foundation of the theory and practical aspects of radiative transfer.

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Book details

List price: $155.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 1/28/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 548
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.134
Language: English

Radiative transfer is important to a range of disciplines from the study of greenhouse warming to stellar atmospheres and ocean optics. This volume provides a foundation of the theory and practical aspects of radiative transfer.

Sir John Houghton CBE, FRS is a former Chairman of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Chairman of the UK's Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, Vice President of the World Meteorological Organisation, President of the Royal Meteorological Society, and Professor of Atmospheric Physics at Oxford University. He was Chief Executive of the UK Meteorological Office from 1983 to his retirement in 1991. As well as the previous editions of this book, he is author of The Physics of Atmospheres (Cambridge University Press, in three editions), and has published numerous research papers and contributed to many influential research documents.

List of Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
Basic Properties of Radiation, Atmospheres, and Oceans
Introduction
Parts of the Spectrum
Extraterrestrial Solar Flux
Terrestrial Infrared Flux
Radiative Interaction with Planetary Media
Feedback Processes
Types of Matter that Affect Radiation
Vertical Structure of Planetary Atmospheres
Hydrostatic and Ideal Gas Laws
Minor Species in the Atmosphere
Optical Line-of-Sight Paths
Radiative Equilibrium and the Thermal Structure of Atmospheres
Climate Change: Radiative Forcing and Feedbacks
Density Structure of the Ocean
Vertical Structure of the Ocean
The Mixed Layer and the Deep Ocean
Seasonal Variations of Ocean Properties
Sea-Surface Temperature
Ocean Spectral Reflectance and Opacity
Remarks on Nomenclature, Notation, and Units
Summary
Basic State Variables and the Radiative Transfer Equation
Introduction
Geometrical Optics
Radiative Flux or Irradiance
Spectral Intensity and Its Angular Moments
Relationship between Flux and Intensity
Average Intensity and Energy Density
Some Theorems on Intensity
Intensity and Flux from an Extended Source
Perception of Brightness: Analogy with Radiance
The Extinction Law
Extinction = Scattering + Absorption
The Differential Equation of Radiative Transfer
Summary
Basic Scattering Processes
Introduction
Lorentz Theory for Radiation-Matter Interactions
Scattering and Collective Effects in a Uniform Medium
Scattering from Density Irregularities
Scattering in Random Media
First-Order and Multiple Scattering
Scattering from a Damped Simple Harmonic Oscillator
Case (1): Resonance Scattering and the Lorentz Profile
Conservative and Nonconservative Scattering
Natural Broadening
Pressure Broadening
Doppler Broadening
Realistic Line-Broadening Processes
Case (2): Rayleigh Scattering
The Scattering Phase Function
Rayleigh-Scattering Phase Function
Mie-Debye Scattering
Summary
Absorption by Solid, Aqueous, and Gaseous Media
Introduction
Absorption on Surfaces, on Aerosols, and within Aqueous Media
Solids
Aerosols
Liquids
Molecular Absorption in Gases
Thermal Emission and Radiation Laws
Planck's Spectral Distribution Law
Radiative Excitation Processes in Molecules
Inelastic Collisional Processes
Maintenance of Thermal Equilibrium Distributions
The Two-Level Atom
Microscopic Radiative Transfer Equation
Effects of Collisions on State Populations
Absorption in Molecular Lines and Bands
Molecular Rotation: The Rigid Rotator
Molecular Vibration and Rotation: The Vibrating Rotator
Line Strengths
Absorption Processes in the UV/Visible
Summary
Principles of Radiative Transfer
Introduction
Boundary Properties of Planetary Media
Thermal Emission from a Surface
Absorption by a Surface
Kirchhoff's Law for Surfaces
Surface Reflection: The BRDF
Albedo for Collimated Incidence
The Flux Reflectance, or Albedo: Diffuse Incidence
Analytic Reflectance Expressions
The Opposition Effect
Specular Reflection from the Sea Surface
Transmission through a Slab Medium
Spherical, or Bond Albedo
Absorption and Scattering in Planetary Media
Kirchhoff's Law for Volume Absorption and Emission
Differential Equation of Radiative Transfer
Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation for Zero Scattering
Solution with Zero Scattering in Slab Geometry
Half-Range Quantities in a Slab Geometry
Formal Solution in a Slab Geometry
Gray Slab Medium in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Formal Solution Including Scattering and Emission
Radiative Heating Rate
Generalized Gershun's Law
Warming Rate, or the Temperature Tendency
Actinic Radiation, Photolysis Rate, and Dose Rate
Summary
Formulation of Radiative Transfer Problems
Introduction
Separation into Diffuse and Direct (Solar) Components
Lower Boundary Conditions
Multiple Scattering
Azimuth Independence of Flux and Mean Intensity
Azimuthal Dependence of the Radiation Field
Spherical Shell Geometry
Nonstratified Media
Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere-Ocean System
Two Stratified Media with Different Indices of Refraction
Examples of Phase Functions
Rayleigh Phase Function
The Mie-Debye Phase Function
Scaling Transformations Useful for Anisotropic Scattering
The [delta]-Isotropic Approximation
The [delta]-Two-Term Approximation
Remarks on Low-Order Scaling Approximations
The [delta]-N Approximation: Arbitrary N
Mathematical and Physical Meaning of the Scaling
Prototype Problems in Radiative Transfer Theory
Prototype Problem 1: Uniform Illumination
Prototype Problem 2: Constant Imbedded Source
Prototype Problem 3: Diffuse Reflection Problem
Boundary Conditions: Reflecting and Emitting Surface
Reciprocity, Duality, and Inhomogeneous Media
Effects of Surface Reflection on the Radiation Field
Integral Equation Formulation of Radiative Transfer
Probabilistic Aspects of Radiative Transfer
The Escape Probability
Summary
Approximate Solutions of Prototype Problems
Introduction
Separation of the Radiation Field into Orders of Scattering
Lambda Iteration: The Multiple-Scattering Series
Single-Scattered Contribution from Ground Reflection: The Planetary Problem
The Two-Stream Approximation: Isotropic Scattering
Approximate Differential Equations
The Mean Inclination: Possible Choices for [mu]
Prototype Problem 1: Differential-Equation Approach
Prototype Problem 2: Imbedded Source
Prototype Problem 3: Beam Incidence
Conservative Scattering in a Finite Slab
Anisotropic Scattering
Two-Stream Versus Eddington Approximations
The Backscattering Coefficients
Two-Stream Solutions for Anisotropic Scattering
Scaling Approximations for Anisotropic Scattering
Generalized Two-Stream Equations
Accuracy of the Two-Stream Method
Final Comments on the Two-Stream Method
Summary
Accurate Numerical Solutions of Prototype Problems
Introduction
Discrete-Ordinate Method-Isotropic Scattering
Quadrature Formulas
The Double-Gauss Method
Anisotropic Scattering
General Considerations
Quadrature Rule
Matrix Formulation of the Discrete-Ordinate Method
Two- and Four-Stream Approximations
Multistream Approximation (N Arbitrary)
Matrix Eigensolutions
Two-Stream Solutions (N = 1)
Multistream Solutions (N Arbitrary)
Inhomogeneous Solution
General Solution
Source Function and Angular Distributions
Boundary Conditions-Removal of Ill-Conditioning
Boundary Conditions
Removal of Numerical Ill-Conditioning
Inhomogeneous Multilayered Media
General Solution-Boundary and Layer Interface Conditions
Source Functions and Angular Distributions
Numerical Implementation of the Discrete-Ordinate Method
Correction of the Truncated Intensity Field
The Nakajima-Tanaka Correction Procedure
Computed Intensity Distributions for the Standard Problem
The Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Problem
Discretized Equations for the Atmosphere-Ocean System
Quadrature and General Solution
Boundary, Continuity, and Atmosphere-Ocean Interface Conditions
The Doubling-Adding and the Matrix Operator Methods
Matrix-Exponential Solution-Formal Derivation of Doubling Rules
Connection between Doubling and Discrete-Ordinate Methods
Intuitive Derivation of the Doubling Rules-Adding of Dissimilar Layers
Other Accurate Methods
The Spherical-Harmonics Method
Invariant Imbedding
Iteration Methods
The Feautrier Method
Integral Equation Approach
Monte Carlo Methods
Summary
Shortwave Radiative Transfer
Introduction
Solar Radiation
Optical Properties of the Earth-Atmosphere System
Gaseous Absorption and Penetration Depth
Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols
Optical Properties of Warm (Liquid Water) Clouds
Optical Properties of Ice Clouds
Optical Properties of the Ocean
Optical Properties of Snow and Ice
Modeling of Shortwave Radiative Effects in the Atmosphere
Spectral Averaging Procedure: The Chandrasekhar Mean
Solar Warming Rates Due to Ozone, Aerosols, and Clouds
Computation of Photolysis Rates
UV Transmission: Relation to Ozone Abundance
UV Transmission and Dose Rates at the Earth's Surface
Comparison of Measured and Computed UV Irradiance at the Surface
Modeling of Shortwave Radiation in the Ocean
Diffuse Radiation: Attenuation in the Ocean
Two-Stream Model Appropriate for Deep Water
Backscattering by Ocean Particles: The Role of Shape Factors
Approximate Expressions for the Remotely Sensed Reflectance
Modeling the UV Transmission into the Ocean
Measured and Computed UV Irradiance in the Ocean
Interaction of Solar Radiation with Snow and Ice
Summary
Transmission in Spectrally Complex Media
Introduction
Transmission in an Isolated Line
Isolated Lorentz Line
Band Models
The Elsasser Band Model
Distributed Line Intensities
Random Band Model
MODTRAN: A Moderate-Resolution Band Model
Spectral Mapping Transformations for Homogeneous Media
Method of the k-Distribution
k-Distribution for the Malkmus Band Model
Transmission in Nongray Inhomogeneous Media
The H-C-G Scaling Approximation
LBL Transmission Computation: Inhomogeneous Paths
Inclusion of Multiple Scattering in LBL Computations
The Correlated-k Method
Inclusion of Multiple Scattering in the Correlated-k Method
Summary
Radiative Transfer in Nongray Media
Introduction
Radiative Flux and Heating Rate: Clear-Sky Conditions
Monochromatic Flux Equations
Wide-Band Emittance Models
Narrow-Band Absorption Model
Band Overlap
The Diffusivity Approximation
Equations for the Heating Rate
Clear-Sky Radiative Cooling: Nonisothermal Medium
Computations of Terrestrial Cooling Rates
The IR Radiative Impact of Clouds and Aerosols
Heating Rate in an Idealized Cloud
Detailed Longwave Radiative Effects of Clouds
Accurate Treatment Including Scattering
Summary
The Role of Radiation in Climate
Introduction
Radiative Equilibrium with Zero Visible Opacity
Radiative Equilibrium with Finite Visible Opacity
Radiative-Convective Equilibrium
The Concept of the Emission Height
Effects of a Spectral Window
Radiative Forcing
Climate Impact of Clouds
Longwave Effects of Water Clouds
Shortwave Effects of Water Clouds
Combined Shortwave and Longwave Effects of Clouds
Climate Impact of Cloud Height
Cloud and Aerosol Forcing
Aerosol Forcing
Water-Vapor Feedback
Effects of Carbon Dioxide Changes
Greenhouse Effect from Individual Gas Species
Summary
Appendices
Nomenclature: Glossary of Symbols
Physical Constants
Model Atmospheres
Ocean Optics Nomenclature
Reflectance and Transmittance at an Interface
Index

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