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Preface | |

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Acknowledgements | |

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Introduction to digital communication | |

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Standardized interfaces and layering | |

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Communication sources | |

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Source coding | |

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Communication channels | |

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Channel encoding (modulation) | |

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Error correction | |

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Digital interface | |

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Network aspects of the digital interface | |

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Supplementary reading | |

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Coding for discrete sources | |

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Introduction | |

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Fixed-length codes for discrete sources | |

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Variable-length codes for discrete sources | |

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Unique decodability | |

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Prefix-free codes for discrete sources | |

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The Kraft inequality for prefix-free codes | |

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Probability models for discrete sources | |

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Discrete memoryless sources | |

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Minimum L for prefix-free codes | |

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Lagrange multiplier solution for the minimum L | |

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Entropy bounds on L | |

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Huffman's algorithm for optimal source codes | |

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Entropy and fixed-to-variable-length codes | |

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Fixed-to-variable-length codes | |

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The AEP and the source coding theorems | |

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The weak law of large numbers | |

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The asymptotic equipartition property | |

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Source coding theorems | |

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The entropy bound for general classes of codes | |

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Markov sources | |

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Coding for Markov sources | |

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Conditional entropy | |

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Lempel-Ziv universal data compression | |

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The LZ77 algorithm | |

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Why LZ77 works | |

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Discussion | |

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Summary of discrete source coding | |

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Exercises | |

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Quantization | |

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Introduction to quantization | |

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Scalar quantization | |

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Choice of intervals for given representation points | |

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Choice of representation points for given intervals | |

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The Lloyd-Max algorithm | |

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Vector quantization | |

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Entropy-coded quantization | |

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High-rate entropy-coded quantization | |

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Differential entropy | |

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Performance of uniform high-rate scalar quantizers | |

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High-rate two-dimensional quantizers | |

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Summary of quantization | |

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Appendixes | |

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Nonuniform scalar quantizers | |

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Nonuniform 2D quantizers | |

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Exercises | |

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Source and channel waveforms | |

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Introduction | |

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Analog sources | |

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Communication channels | |

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Fourier series | |

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Finite-energy waveforms | |

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L[subscript 2] functions and Lebesgue integration over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Lebesgue measure for a union of intervals | |

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Measure for more general sets | |

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Measurable functions and integration over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Measurability of functions defined by other functions | |

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L[subscript 1] and L[subscript 2] functions over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Fourier series for L[subscript 2] waveforms | |

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The T-spaced truncated sinusoid expansion | |

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Fourier transforms and L[subscript 2] waveforms | |

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Measure and integration over R | |

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Fourier transforms of L[subscript 2] functions | |

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The DTFT and the sampling theorem | |

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The discrete-time Fourier transform | |

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The sampling theorem | |

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Source coding using sampled waveforms | |

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The sampling theorem for [Delta - W, Delta + W] | |

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Aliasing and the sinc-weighted sinusoid expansion | |

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The T-spaced winc-weighted sinusoid expansion | |

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Degrees of freedom | |

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Aliasing - a time-domain approach | |

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Aliasing - a frequency-domain approach | |

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Summary | |

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Appendix: Supplementary material and proofs | |

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Countable sets | |

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Finite unions of intervals over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Countable unions and outer measure over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Arbitrary measurable sets over [-T/2, T/2] | |

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Exercises | |

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Vector spaces and signal space | |

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Axioms and basic properties of vector spaces | |

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Finite-dimensional vector spaces | |

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Inner product spaces | |

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The inner product spaces R[superscript n] and C[superscript n] | |

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One-dimensional projections | |

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The inner product space of L[subscript 2] functions | |

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Subspaces of inner product spaces | |

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Orthonormal bases and the projection theorem | |

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Finite-dimensional projections | |

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Corollaries of the projection theorem | |

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Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization | |

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Orthonormal expansions in L[subscript 2] | |

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Summary | |

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Appendix: Supplementary material and proofs | |

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The Plancherel theorem | |

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The sampling and aliasing theorems | |

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Prolate spheroidal waveforms | |

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Exercises | |

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Channels, modulation, and demodulation | |

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Introduction | |

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Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) | |

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Signal constellations | |

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Channel imperfections: a preliminary view | |

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Choice of the modulation pulse | |

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PAM demodulation | |

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The Nyquist criterion | |

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Band-edge symmetry | |

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Choosing {p(t - kT); k [set membership] Z} as an orthonormal set | |

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Relation between PAM and analog source coding | |

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Modulation: baseband to passband and back | |

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Double-sideband amplitude modulation | |

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Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) | |

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QAM signal set | |

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QAM baseband modulation and demodulation | |

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QAM: baseband to passband and back | |

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Implementation of QAM | |

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Signal space and degrees of freedom | |

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Distance and orthogonality | |

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Carrier and phase recovery in QAM systems | |

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Tracking phase in the presence of noise | |

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Large phase errors | |

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Summary of modulation and demodulation | |

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Exercises | |

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Random processes and noise | |

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Introduction | |

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Random processes | |

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Examples of random processes | |

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The mean and covariance of a random process | |

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Additive noise channels | |

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Gaussian random variables, vectors, and processes | |

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The covariance matrix of a jointly Gaussian random vector | |

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The probability density of a jointly Gaussian random vector | |

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Special case of a 2D zero-mean Gaussian random vector | |

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Z = AW, where A is orthogonal | |

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Probability density for Gaussian vectors in terms of principal axes | |

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Fourier transforms for joint densities | |

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Linear functionals and filters for random processes | |

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Gaussian processes defined over orthonormal expansions | |

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Linear filtering of Gaussian processes | |

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Covariance for linear functionals and filters | |

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Stationarity and related concepts | |

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Wide-sense stationary (WSS) random processes | |

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Effectively stationary and effectively WSS random processes | |

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Linear functionals for effectively WSS random processes | |

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Linear filters for effectively WSS random processes | |

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Stationarity in the frequency domain | |

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White Gaussian noise | |

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The sinc expansion as an approximation to WGN | |

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Poisson process noise | |

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Adding noise to modulated communication | |

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Complex Gaussian random variables and vectors | |

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Signal-to-noise ratio | |

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Summary of random processes | |

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Appendix: Supplementary topics | |

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Properties of covariance matrices | |

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The Fourier series expansion of a truncated random process | |

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Uncorrelated coefficients in a Fourier series | |

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The Karhunen-Loeve expansion | |

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Exercises | |

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Detection, coding, and decoding | |

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Introduction | |

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Binary detection | |

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Binary signals in white Gaussian noise | |

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Detection for PAM antipodal signals | |

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Detection for binary nonantipodal signals | |

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Detection for binary real vectors in WGN | |

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Detection for binary complex vectors in WGN | |

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Detection of binary antipodal waveforms in WGN | |

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M-ary detection and sequence detection | |

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M-ary detection | |

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Successive transmissions of QAM signals in WGN | |

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Detection with arbitrary modulation schemes | |

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Orthogonal signal sets and simple channel coding | |

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Simplex signal sets | |

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Biorthogonal signal sets | |

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Error probability for orthogonal signal sets | |

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Block coding | |

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Binary orthogonal codes and Hadamard matrices | |

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Reed-Muller codes | |

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Noisy-channel coding theorem | |

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Discrete memoryless channels | |

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Capacity | |

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Converse to the noisy-channel coding theorem | |

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Noisy-channel coding theorem, forward part | |

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The noisy-channel coding theorem for WGN | |

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Convolutional codes | |

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Decoding of convolutional codes | |

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The Viterbi algorithm | |

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Summary of detection, coding, and decoding | |

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Appendix: Neyman-Pearson threshold tests | |

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Exercises | |

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Wireless digital communication | |

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Introduction | |

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Physical modeling for wireless channels | |

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Free-space, fixed transmitting and receiving antennas | |

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Free-space, moving antenna | |

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Moving antenna, reflecting wall | |

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Reflection from a ground plane | |

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Shadowing | |

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Moving antenna, multiple reflectors | |

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Input/output models of wireless channels | |

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The system function and impulse response for LTV systems | |

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Doppler spread and coherence time | |

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Delay spread and coherence frequency | |

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Baseband system functions and impulse responses | |

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A discrete-time baseband model | |

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Statistical channel models | |

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Passband and baseband noise | |

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Data detection | |

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Binary detection in flat Rayleigh fading | |

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Noncoherent detection with known channel magnitude | |

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Noncoherent detection in flat Rician fading | |

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Channel measurement | |

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The use of probing signals to estimate the channel | |

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Rake receivers | |

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Diversity | |

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CDMA: the IS95 standard | |

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Voice compression | |

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Channel coding and decoding | |

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Viterbi decoding for fading channels | |

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Modulation and demodulation | |

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Multiaccess interference in IS95 | |

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Summary of wireless communication | |

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Appendix: Error probability for noncoherent detection | |

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Exercises | |

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References | |

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Index | |