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History of Natural Philosophy From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century

ISBN-10: 0521689570
ISBN-13: 9780521689571
Edition: 2007
Authors: Edward Grant
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Description: Natural philosophy encompassed all natural phenomena of the physical world. It sought to discover the physical causes of all natural effects and was little concerned with mathematics. By contrast, the exact mathematical sciences were narrowly  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 1/22/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 376
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.100
Language: English

Natural philosophy encompassed all natural phenomena of the physical world. It sought to discover the physical causes of all natural effects and was little concerned with mathematics. By contrast, the exact mathematical sciences were narrowly confined to various computations that did not involve physical causes, functioning totally independently of natural philosophy. Although this began slowly to change in the late Middle Ages, a much more thoroughgoing union of natural philosophy and mathematics occurred in the seventeenth century and thereby made the Scientific Revolution possible. The title of Isaac Newton's great work, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, perfectly reflects the new relationship. Natural philosophy became the "Great Mother of the Sciences," which by the nineteenth century had nourished the manifold chemical, physical, and biological sciences to maturity, thus enabling them to leave the "Great Mother" and emerge as the multiplicity of independent sciences we know today.

Edward Grant is Professor of History and History of science and Chairman of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University, Bloomington.

Preface
Ancient Egypt to Plato
The Preliterate Beginnings
Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
Early Greek Natural Philosophy and Medicine
Plato
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Life
Works: Aristotle's Writings and Their Preservation
Aristotle's Achievements
Aristotle's Cosmos and Natural Philosophy
The Scope of Aristotle's Natural Philosophy
Late Antiquity
Neoplatonism and Its Approach to Aristotle
Islam and the Eastward Shift of Aristotelian Natural Philosophy
The Translations
The Fate of Natural Philosophy in Islam
Natural Philosophy before the Latin Translations
Roman Authors
The Latin Encyclopedists: European Learning to the Ninth Century
The Twelfth Century and Its Immediate Antecedents
Hostile Reception of the New Theology
Natural Philosophy in the Twelfth Century
Translations in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries
The World of the Translators
Translations from Arabic and Greek in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries
How Trustworthy Are Aristotle's Translated Texts?
Pseudo-Aristotle: Works Falsely Attributed to Aristotle
Natural Philosophy after the Translations: Its Role and Place in the Late Middle Ages
The Medieval University
The Impact of Aristotelian Natural Philosophy in the Early Thirteenth Century to 1240
University Lectures on Natural Philosophy
The Classification of the Sciences and the Subject of Natural Philosophy
Anonymous Fourteenth-Century Treatise on Natural Philosophy
The Occult Sciences and Natural Philosophy
The Form and Content of Late Medieval Natural Philosophy
John Buridan: On the Possibility of Other Worlds
The Substantive Nature of Natural Philosophy in the Late Middle Ages
Thought Experiments and the Role of the Imagination
Beyond Aristotle
Was Aristotelian Natural Philosophy Science?
The Relations between Natural Philosophy and Theology
The Disciplinary Relations between Natural Philosophy and Theology
Did God and Theology Play an Integral Role in Medieval Natural Philosophy?
How a Few Significant Natural Philosophers Viewed the Relations between Natural Philosophy and Theology
The Relationship as Reflected in the Questions and Commentaries on the Works of Aristotle
Did Natural Philosophy Influence Medieval Theology?
The Transformation of Medieval Natural Philosophy from the Early Modern Period to the End of the Nineteenth Century
The Fate of Medieval Natural Philosophy during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
The New Natural Philosophy of the Seventeenth Century
The Relations between Natural Philosophy and Science in the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Centuries
The Revolution in Natural Philosophy from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century
The Continuity of History and the Problem of Names and Terminology
Conclusion
Bibliography
Index

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